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PRACA PRZEGLĄDOWA
Immunomodulacyjne znaczenie diety i COVID-19
 
Więcej
Ukryj
1
Department of Pathophysiology, Collegium Medicum, Jagiellonian University, Kraków, Poland
AUTOR DO KORESPONDENCJI
Dominika Grońska   

Katedra Patofizjologii, Collegium Medicum Uniwersytetu Jagiellońskiego w Krakowie, Czysta 18, 31-121, Kraków, Polska
 
 
SŁOWA KLUCZOWE
DZIEDZINY
STRESZCZENIE
Wprowadzenie i cel:
Najnowsze doniesienia naukowe wykazały, że istnieje związek pomiędzy stanem układu pokarmowego i odpornościowego a występowaniem COVID-19. Dieta może wywierać efekt immunomodulacyjny i regulować odpowiedź immunologiczną organizmu. Celem niniejszego przeglądu jest przedstawienie wpływu immunomodulatorów zawartych w diecie bądź suplementowanych na zakażenie SARS-CoV-2 i przebieg COVID-19.

Metody przeglądu:
Przegląd piśmiennictwa przeprowadzono z wykorzystaniem wyszukiwarek PubMed i Google Scholar oraz bazy danych Medline.

Opis stanu wiedzy:
Regularna suplementacja witaminą D znacząco zmniejszała ryzyko zakażenia układu oddechowego wirusem SARS-CoV-2; witamina C może hamować ekspresję receptora ACE2 w ludzkich komórkach nabłonka małych pęcherzyków płucnych i ograniczać penetrację SARS-CoV-2; obniżony poziom żelaza predysponuje do wystąpienia ciężkich objawów COVID-19, niedobór selenu może odpowiadać za obniżony poziom przeciwciał i cytotoksyczność komórek NK. Wyizolowane polisacharydy z Aloe vera wzmocniły układ odpornościowy; kwercetyna i kwas elagowy w połączeniu z białkami wirusa wykazały potencjalną aktywność przeciwwirusową wobec SARS- -CoV-2. Kolejno substancje adaptogenne, imbir, echinacea oraz kurkumina – wykazywały działanie przeciwzapalne. Również optymalny skład mikrobioty jelitowej poprawiał/utrzymywał integralność tkanki limfatycznej występującej w obrębie przewodu pokarmowego (GALT) i funkcjonowanie osi jelitowo-płucnej.

Podsumowanie:
Naturalne immunomodulatory mogą stanowić stosunkowo bezpieczną opcję terapeutyczną u pacjentów chorujących na COVID-19, jednak nadal nie ma oficjalnych zaleceń dotyczących ich praktycznego wykorzystania w terapii. Należy podkreślić, że istnieje potrzeba prowadzenia dalszych badań naukowych nad mechanizmami działania i skutecznością fitoterapii w kontekście skuteczności roślinnych immunostymulatorów w łagodzeniu przebiegu choroby COVID-19.


Introduction and objective:
The latest scientific reports showed that there is a relationship between the state of the gastrointestinal tract and the immune system, and the incidence of COVID-19. Diet can exert an immunomodulatory effect and regulate the immune response of an organism. The aim of the review is to show the effects of immunomodulators contained/supplemented in a diet on the infection SARS-CoV-2 and the course of COVID-19.

Review methods:
The literature review was conducted using PubMed, Google Scholar and the Medline database.

Abbreviated description of the state of knowledge:
Regular vitamin D supplementation significantly reduces the risk of respiratory infection with SARS-CoV-2; vitamin C may inhibit the expression of the ACE2 receptor in human small alveolar epithelial cells and limit the penetration of SARS-CoV-2; reduced iron levels predispose people to severe COVID-19 symptoms; selenium deficiency may be responsible for a decreased level of antibodies and NK cell cytotoxicity. Aloë vera isolated polysaccharides strengthens the immune system; the quercetin and ellagic acid in combination with virus proteins show potential antiviral activity against SARSCoV- 2. Subsequently, adaptogens, ginger, echinacea and curcumin - showed anti-inflammatory effects. Also, the optimal composition of the gut microbiota improved/maintained the integrity of the lymphoid tissue found in the gastrointestinal tract (GALT) and the functioning of the gut-pulmonary axis.

Summary:
Natural immunomodulators may be a relatively safe therapeutic option in patients during the course of COVID-19, but there are still no official recommendations for their practical use in therapy. It should be emphasized that there is a need for further scientific research into the mechanisms of action and efficacy of phytotherapy in the context of the effectiveness of plant-based immunostimulants in alleviating the course of COVID-19 disease.

 
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