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Wprowadzenie i cel:
Stwardnienie boczne zanikowe (SLA) jest chorobą zwyrodnieniową układu nerwowego. Choroba prowadzi do ciężkiej niepełnosprawności, a ostatecznie do śmierci z powodu niewydolności oddechowej. Aktualnie zwraca się uwagę na występowanie dużej depresji, będącej wczesnym markerem zwyrodnienia mózgu. Celem pracy był przegląd piśmiennictwa na temat występowania depresji u chorych na SLA.

Metody przeglądu:
W pracy uwzględniono piśmiennictwo z bazy PubMed/Medline obejmujące lata 2004–2021.

Opis stanu wiedzy:
Chorzy na SLA są bardziej narażeni na depresję. W badaniach wykazano, że nasilenie objawów depresyjnych było związane z płcią, zatrudnieniem, postrzeganym stanem zdrowia i typem SLA. Nasilenie depresji korelowało z szybszym postępem choroby i gorszym stanem czynnościowym. Ponadto występuje wysokie rozpowszechnienie depresji u pacjentów cierpiących na SLA i zaburzeniami poznawczymi w porównaniu z pacjentami bez deficytów poznawczych. Natomiast w innych badaniach obserwowano, że depresja nie była związana z czasem trwania i prezentacją kliniczną choroby, płcią, wiekiem pacjenta w momencie jej wystąpienia i stanem czynnościowym chorych. Także występowanie i nasilenie depresji nie były skorelowane z progresją choroby. Nie zaobserwowano również istotnych korelacji między poziomem depresji a funkcjami poznawczymi. Z przeglądu piśmiennictwa wynika, że depresja w SLA ma istotny wpływ zarówno na fizyczne, jak i psychologiczne domeny jakości życia.

Podsumowanie:
Depresja u chorych na SLA występuje ze zróżnicowaną częstością. Wyniki badań dotyczące wpływu różnych czynników na występowanie depresji u chorych na SLA są niejednoznaczne. Depresja w SLA związana jest z gorszą jakością życia i wycofaniem społecznym.


Introduction and objective:
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a degenerative disease of the nervous system. The disease leads to severe disability and eventually death from respiratory failure. Currently, attention is paid to the presence of major depression as an early marker of brain degeneration. The aim of the study was to review the literature on the occurrence of depression in patients with ALS.

Review methods:
Literature from the PubMed/Medline database covering the years 2004–2021 was included.

Brief description of the state of knowledge:
ALS patients are more likely to be diagnosed with depression. Studies have shown that the severity of depressive symptoms was related to gender, employment, perceived health status and the type of ALS. The severity of depression correlated with faster disease progression and worse functional status. Moreover, there is a high prevalence of depression in patients with ALS and cognitive impairment, compared with patients without cognitive deficits. However, in other studies it was observed that depression was not related to the duration and clinical presentation of the disease, gender, age at its onset, and the functional status of patients. Also, the occurrence and severity of depression were not correlated with disease progression. There were also no significant correlations between the level of depression and cognitive functions. A review of the literature shows that depression in ALS has a significant impact on both the physical and psychological domains of the quality of life.

Summary:
Depression in patients with ALS occurs with varying frequency. The results of research regarding the influence of various factors on the incidence of depression in ALS patients are inconclusive. Depression in ALS is associated with poorer quality of life and social withdrawal.

 
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