PRACA ORYGINALNA
Ocena stanu odżywienia i sprawności funkcjonalnej u osób w wieku podeszłym
 
Więcej
Ukryj
1
Chair and Department of Health Prevention, University of Medical Sciences, Poznan, Poland
2
Chair and Clinic of Palliative Medicine, University of Medical Sciences, Poznan, Poland
AUTOR DO KORESPONDENCJI
Magdalena Strugała   

Chair and Department of Health Prevention, Poznan University of Medical Sciences
 
Med Og Nauk Zdr. 2019;25(4):274–281
 
SŁOWA KLUCZOWE
DZIEDZINY
STRESZCZENIE ARTYKUŁU
Wprowadzenie:
Problemy związane z zaburzeniami stanu odżywienia przyczyniają się do wzrostu chorobowości osób starszych i wraz ze spadkiem aktywności funkcjonalnej stanowią często ważny element niesprawności. Celem podjętych badań była analiza związku pomiędzy stanem odżywienia a sprawnością funkcjonalną u osób w wieku podeszłym.

Materiał i metody:
Badaniem przekrojowym objęto 412 osób starszych, w tym 318 kobiet (77%). Średni wiek pacjentów w badanej grupie wynosił 75,8±7,6 lat. W obrębie całej grupy przeprowadzono analizę korelacji między stanem odżywiania, ocenianym według skali MNA (Mini Nutritional Assessment), a parametrami społecznymi i demograficznymi, stanem zdrowia (liczba chorób przewlekłych, przyjmowanych leków) oraz wykładnikami sprawności funkcjonalnej. Aby zidentyfikować czynniki istotnie wpływające na ryzyko niedożywienia, zastosowano model regresji logistycznej. Uzyskane wyniki przedstawiono jako iloraz szans z 95-proc. przedziałami ufności. Przeprowadzono również stopniową regresję logistyczną z eliminacją wsteczną.

Wyniki:
Prawidłowy stan odżywienia (MNA 23–30 pkt), dobry stan psychiczny (MMSE 24–30), brak ryzyka depresji (GDS – 0–5 pkt) i upadków (TUG – mniej niż 14 s) oraz poprawną sprawność funkcjonalną (wskaźnik Barthel 86–100; IADL – 27) określono u 253 (61,4%) respondentów. Przeprowadzenie analizy wieloparametrowej wykazało, że niezależnymi determinantami stanu odżywiania były: ryzyko depresji (p<0,001), ryzyko upadku (p<0,01), sprawność poznawcza (p<0,05) oraz wykształcenie (p<0,05).

Wnioski:
Nieprawidłowy stan odżywienia może być zarówno konsekwencją, jak i przyczyną niepełnosprawności. Ze względu na ustaloną korelację między stanem odżywienia a składnikami sprawności funkcjonalnej występowanie nieprawidłowości w obszarze dowolnego elementu wydolności funkcjonalnej powinno zobowiązać do przeprowadzenia badań przesiewowych stanu odżywienia.


Introduction and objective:
The incidence of problems related with nutrition disorders and decrease of functional activity among the elderly are often an important element of their disability. The aim of the study was to analyse the relationship between the nutritional status and functional fitness of aselected population of elderly people.

Material and methods:
The cross-sectional study comprised 412 elderly persons, including 318 females (77%). The mean age of the study group was 75.8 years±7.6. Within the entire group an analysis of correlation between nutritional status and functional ability was performed, assessed according to the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) scale, as well as social and demographic parameters, health condition (number of chronic diseases, drugs taken) and the functional independence exponents. To identify factors significantly affecting the risk of malnutrition, the logistic regression model was used. Results obtained were presented as odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals. A stepwise multiple logistic regression with backward elimination was also performed.

Results:
Results The normal nutritional status (MNA 23–30 point), good mental status (MMSE 24–30), no risk of depression (GDS – 0–5 points), risk of falls (TUG – less than 14 seconds) and correct functional capability (Barthel index 86–100; IADL – 27), were determined in 253 (61.4%) respondents. Multi-parameter analysis proved that the independent determinants of nutrition status were: risk of depression (p<0.001), risk of falling (p<0.01), cognitive ability (p<0.05) and education (p<0.05).

Conclusions:
Conclusions Incorrect nutritional status can be both a consequence and cause of disability. Due to the determined correlation between nutritional status and the components of functional fitness, the existence of irregularities in the area of any element should necessitate the conduction of screening tests to determine nutritional status.

 
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