Clinical manifestation of urolithiasis in children aged under 3 years – a retrospective epidemiological analysis
More details
Hide details
Koło Naukowe przy Klinice Pediatrii, Immunologii i Kardiologii Prewencyjnej, Uniwersytet Medyczny w Łodzi
Klinika Pediatrii i Immunologii z Pododdziałem Nefrologii Instytut Centrum Zdrowia Matki Polki, Łódź
Corresponding author
Agnieszka Bik
Klinika Pediatrii i Immunologii z Pododdziałem Nefrologii, Instytut Centrum Zdrowia Matki Polki, Łódź, ul. Rzgowska 281/289, 93-338 Łódź
Med Og Nauk Zdr. 2013;19(1):21-24
Urolithiasis diagnosed among children aged under 3 years of age concerns 20% of the total number of cases of urolithiasis in children. The symptoms of the disease are very nonspecific, with the major symptoms of abdominal signs, irritability or restlessness, which, however, may be asymptomatic. Objective: Investigation of frequency of the occurrence of risk factors, and the diversity of symptoms among children aged under 3 years.

Material and Methods:
A 3-year retrospective epidemiological analysis was performed among children under 36 months of age with confirmed urolithiasis, including data on neonatal and infancy risk factors that occurred, symptoms, laboratory and ultrasound results at the time of diagnosis.

70 children were qualified for the study: 35 boys and 35 girls. 37% of the children had a positive family history of urolithiasis. The most common risk factors were urinary tract infections (58%). Mean age at diagnosis was 10 months, and the symptoms of urolithiasis were present in 84% of cases. Metabolic anomalies were found in 31.4% of patients, while hypercalciuria occurred in 12.8%.

Urolithiasis in children aged under 3 years is mostly diagnosed due to nonspecific abdominal symptoms. The most common risk factors are UTI. Metabolic anomalies occurred in over 30% of cases.

Jallouli M, Mhiri R, Nouri A. Urolithiasis in infants. Pediatr Surg Int. 2007; 23: 295-299.
Alpay H, Gocke I, Ozen A. Urinary stone disease in the first year of life: is it dangerous? Pediatr Surg Int. 2013; 29(3): 311-6.
Hoppe B, Kemper MJ. Diagnostic examination of the child with urolithiasis or nephrocalcinosis. Pediatr Nephrol. 2010; 25: 403-413.
Humphreys J, Coward RJ. Renal stones in paediatric practice. Paediatr Child Health 2010; 20(6): 279-285.
Bastug F, Gunduz Z, Tulpar S, Poyrazoglu H, Dusunsel R: Urolithiasis in infants: evaluation of risk factors. World J Urol. 2012, doi 10.1007/ s00345-012-0828-y.
Bochniewska V, Jung A, Goszczyk A, Muszyńska J, Kraś E. Kamica układu moczowego u dzieci – inhibitory i promontory krystalizacji. Pediatr Med Rodz. 2006; 2(2):91-99.
Nimkin K, Lebowitz RL, Share JC, Teele RL: Urolithiasis in a Children’s Hospital: 1985 – 1990. Urol Radiol. 1992; 14.
Alpay H, Gokce I, Ozen A, Biyikli N: Clinical and metabolic features of urolithiasis and microlithiasis in children. Pediatr Nephrol. 2009; 24: 2203-2209.
Guven AG, Koyun M, Baysal YE, Akman S, Alimoglu E. Urolithiasis in the first year of life. Pediatr Nephrol. 2010, 25:129-134.
Journals System - logo
Scroll to top