More details
Hide details
Z Oddziału Chirurgii Dziecięcej Wojewódzkiego Szpitalu Zespolonego w Koninie
Med Og. 2009;15(1):11–26
Acute appendicitis is the most common diagnosis in children with a surgical condition of the abdomen. The lifetime prevalence of appendicitis is approximately 7%, with the highest incidence occurring between the age of 10-30. The exact etiology of appendicitis is unknown; however, it is generally agreed that obstruction of the appendiceal lumen is the precipitating event. The obstruction may be a result of an appendicolith or other factors, such as lymphoid hyperplasia, infectious agents, or, rarely, a carcinoid tumour. Children with acute appendicitis present with a wide variety of clinical manifestations, and clinical diagnosis is not always straightforward. Approximately one-third of children with acute appendicitis have atypical clinical findings. Younger children are not able to clearly describe their symptoms. The diagnosis of appendicitis is made by history taking and physical examination. Laboratory test, such as white blood cell count (WBCC), C-reactive protein level, and radiologic tests: abdominal ultrasound scan, focused appendiceal computed tomography with contrast, can be used to support clinical data. Surgical treatment should be performed in almost all cases of acute appendicities in children (appendectomy by an open or laparoscopic). Some cases of performed appendicitis may be treated first by antibiotics, followed by appendectomy.
Shelton T, McKinlay R., Schwartz R., "Acute appendicitis:current diagnosis and treatment", Current Surgery, 2003 september / octember, Vol 60, Number 5, pp502-505.
Gwynn L., "Appediceal enlargement as a criterion for clinical diagnosis of acute appendicitis: is it reliable and valid?", The Journal of Emergency Medicine, 2002, Vol. 23, No. I,pp9-14.
Stefanutti G., Ghirardo V., Gamba P, "Inflammatory markers for acute appendicitis in children are helpful?", Journal of Pediatrie Surgery, 2007, 42, pp 773-776.
"Appendicitis", Curr Probl Surg 2005, 42, pp 694-742.
Reynolds S., "Diagnosing Pediatrie Appendicitis", Clin Ped Emerg Med 1999, 1, pp 21-26.
"Chirurgia dziecięca" pod redakcją Jerzego Czernika.
Skandalakis J., Skandalakis P., Skandalakis L, "Anatomia chirurgiczna i techniki zabiegów operacyjnych".
Reynolds S., "Missed Appendicitis and Medical Liability", Clin Ped Emerg Med 2003, 4, pp 231-234.
Rothrock S., Pagane J., " Acute Appendicitis in Children: Emergency Department Diagnosis and Management", Ann Emerg Med , July 2000, 36, pp 39-51.
Stringer M., Leeds G., "Childhood Appendicitis in the United Kindom: Fifty Years of Progress", Journal of Pediatrie Surgery, July 2003, Vol 38, No 7, pp 65-69.
Weber T., Keller M., Bower R., Spinner G., Vierling K., " Is delayednoperative treatment worth the trouble with perforated appendicitis is children? ", The American Journal of Surgery, 2003, 186, pp 685-689.
Gauderer M., Crane M., Green J., DeCou J., Abrams R., " Acute appendicitis in children: the importance of family history.", Journal of Pediatrie Surgery, 2001, Vol 36, No 8, pp 1214-1217.
Carr N., " The pathology of acute appendicitis ", Annals of Diagnostic Pathology, 2000,Vol4,No l,pp 46-58.
Corpron C, Black T., Herzog C, Sellin R., Lally K., Andrassy R., " A half century ofexperience with carcinoid tumors in children.", The American Journal of Surgery,1995, Vol 170, pp 606-608.
Maenza R., Smith L., Wolfson A., "The Myth of the fecalith.", Am J Emerg Med1996, 14, pp 394-397.
Alaedeen D., Cook M., Chwals W., " Appendiceal fecalith is associated with early perforation in pediatrie patients.", Journal of Pediatrie Surgery, 2008, 43, pp 889-892.
Samuel M., " Pediatrie appendicitis score.", Journal of Pediatrie Surgery, 2002, Vol 37,No 6, pp 877-881.
Smink D., Finkelstein J., Pena B., Shannon M., Taylor G., Fishman S., " Diagnosis of acute appendicitis in children using a clinical practice guideline.", Journal of Pediatrie Surgery, 2004, Vol 39, No 3, pp 458-463.
Broek W., Ende E., A Bijnen, Breslau P., Gouma D., " Which children could benefit from additional diagnostic tool in case of suspected appendicitis?", Journal of Pediatrie Surgery, 2004, Vol 39, No 4, pp 570-74.
Muehlstedt S., Pham T., Schmeling D., " The management of pediatrie appendicitis: a survey of North American pediatrie surgeons.", Journal of Pediatrie Surgery, 2004, Vol 39, No 6, pp 875-879.
Rao P., Rhea J., Novelline R., McCabe C, " The computed tomography appearance of recurrent and chronić appendicitis.", Am J Emerg Med 1998, 16, pp 26-33.
Sander S., Elicevik M., Unal M., Vural O., " An unusual presentation of appendicitis: vaginal discharge.", Journal of Pediatrie Surgery, 2001, Vol 36, No 10, pp 1579-1580.
England R., Crabbe D., " Delayed diagnosis of appendicitis in children trewted with antibiotics.", Pediatr Surg Int 2006 ( June ), 22, pp 541-545.
Beltran M., Almonacid J., Vicencio A., Gutierrez J., Cruces K., Cumsille M., " Predictive value of white blood celi count and C-reactive protein in children with appendicitis.", Journal of Pediatrie Surgery, 2007, 42, pp 1208-1214.
Poradessin M., Chan M., Catallozzi M., Gilchrist B., Richards C, Manera L., Wallach M., Luks F., " Selective use of ultrasonography for acute appendicitis in children.", The American Journal of Surgery, 1999, 177, pp 193-196.
Kaneko K., Tsuda M., " Ultrasound-based making in the treatment of acute appendicitis in children.", Journal of Pediatrie Surgery, 2004, No 9, Vol 39, pp 1316-1320.
Schulte B., Beyer D., Kaiser C, Horsch S., Wiater A., " Ultrasonography in suspected acute appendicitis in childhood - report of 1285 cases.", European Journal of Ultrasound, 1998, 8, pp 177-182.
Icesu L., Yazicioglu A., Selcuk M., Ozen N., " Contrast - enhanced power Doppler US in the diagnosis of acute appendicitis.", European Journal of Radiology 2004, 50, pp 201-209.
Rao P., Rhea J., Rattner D., Venus L., Novelline R., " Introduction of appendiceal CT: impact on negative appendectomy and appendiceal perforation rates.", Ann Surg, 1999, 229, pp 344-349.
Lin C, Chen J., Tiu C, Chou Y., Chiang J., Lee C, Chang C, Yu C, " Can ruptured appendicitis be detected preoperatively in the ED?", The American Journal of Emergency Medicine, 2005, 23, pp 60-66.
Stphen A., Segev D., Ryan D., Mullins M., Kim S., Schnitzer J., Doody D., " The diagnosis of acute appendicitis in a pediatrie population: to CT or not to CT.", Journal of Pediatrie Surgery, 2003, 38, pp 367-371.
Ikeda H., Ishimaru Y., Takayasu H., Okamura K., Kisaki Y., Koshigaya J., " Laparoscopic versus open appendectomy in children with uncomplicated and complicated appendicitis.", Journal of Pediatrie Surgery, 2004, Vol 39, No 11, pp 1680-1685.
Horwitz J., Custer M., May B., Mehall J., Lally K., " Should laparoscopic appendectomy be avoided for complicated appendicitis in children?", Journal of Pediatrie Surgery, 1997,Vol32,No 11, pp 1601-1603.
Kurtz R., Heimann T., " Comparison of open and laparoscopic treatment of acute appendicitis.", The American Journal of Surgery, 2001, 182, pp 211-214.
Meguerditchian A., Prasil P., Cloutier R., Leclerc S., Peloąuin J., Roy G., " Laparoscopic appendectomy in children: a favorable alternative in simple and complicated appendicitis.", Journal of Pediatrie Surgery, 2002, Vol 37, No 5, pp 695-698.
Lintula H., Kokki H., Vanamo K., Antila P., Eskelinen M., " Laparoscopy in children with complicated appendicitis.", Journal f Pediatrie Surgery, 2002, Vol 37, No 9, pp 1317-1320.
Patrick D., " Prospective evaluation of a primary laparoscopic approach for children presenting with simple or complicated appendicitis.", The American Journal of Surgery, 2006, 192, pp 750-755.
Gamal R., Moore T., " Appendicitis in children aged 13 years and younger.", The American Journal of Surgery, 1990, 159, pp 589-592.
Ostlie D., Holcomb G., " Laparoscopic appendectomy.", Operative Techniąues in General Surgery, 2004, Vol 6, No 4, pp 317-329.
Canty T., Collins D., Losasso B., Lynch F., Brown C, " Laparoscopic appendectomy for simple and perforated appendicitis in children: the procedurę of choise?", Journal of Pediatrie Surgery, 2000, Vol 35, No 11, pp 1582-1585.
Dronov A., Kotlobovskyi, " Laparoscopic appendectomy in children: experience of 2000 procedurę.", Surgery in Childhood International, 2000, 2, pp 69-74.
Aprahamian C, Barnhart D., Bledsoe S., Vaid Y., Harmon C, " Failure in the nonoperative management of pediatrie ruptured appendicitis: preditors and conseąuences.", Journal of Pediatrie Surgery, 2007, 42, pp 934-938.
Tsia H., Shan Y., Lin P., Lin X., Chen C, " Clinical analysis of the predictive factors for recurrent appendicitis after initial nonoperative treatment of perforated appendicitis.", The American Journal of Surgery, 2006, 192, pp 311-316.
Puapong D., Lee S., Haigh P., Kamiński A., Liu I., Applebaum H., " Routine interval appendectomy in children is not indicated.", Journal of Pediatrie Surgery, 2007, 42, pp 1500-1503.
Sivit C, Applegate K., " Imaging of acute appendicitis in children.", Seminars in Ultrasound, Ct and MRI, 2003, Vol 24, No 2, pp 74-82.