Psychometric properties of the Polish version of the Children’s Auditory Performance Scale
More details
Hide details
Institute of Physiology and Pathology of Hearing, World Hearing Centre, Poland
Institute of Sensory Organs, World Hearing Centre, Poland
Corresponding author
Elżbieta Gos   

Instytut Fizjologii i Patologii Słuchu, Światowe Centrum Słuchu, Mokra 17, 05-830, Kajetany, Polska
Med Og Nauk Zdr. 2020;26(3):261-267
Introduction and objectives.:
The key element of the diagnostics of Auditory Processing Disorder (APD) is assessment of peripheral hearing and higher auditory functions, supplemented by information from clinical history-taking. Also, specialist questionnaires play an important role. The aim of the study was presentation of the psychometric properties of the Polish version of the Children’s Auditory Performance Scale (CHAPS), and verification of the usefulness of this questionnaire in the diagnostics of auditory processing disorders.

Material and methods:
The study included 176 parents of children aged between 7–12 years. The CHAPS questionnaire consists of 36 items divided into 6 categories (subscales), referring to various auditory behaviours. The respondent‘s task was to specify the way of functioning of children, compared to their contemporaries; the higher the result, the better the auditory skills. The Scale of Auditory Behaviors (SAB) was applied, and psychoacoustic behavioural tests were performed.

Reliability of measurements was found to be good, Cronbach’s alpha coefficient (0.97) showed a high internal consistency of the scale. Statistically significant, positive correlations were observed between the total score and subscales (0.58–0.7). Intra-class correlation, which was used to determine reproducibility, was 0. 84. Correlations with the results of psychoacoustic tests were low (0.2–0.3), and with Scale of Auditory Behaviors – 0.62. Statistically significant differences between girls and boys were found in the total score; however, no statistically significant relationship was noted between the child’s age and the CHAPS results.

Results of psychometric and statistical analyses suggest that the Polish version of the Children’s Auditory Performance Scale enables a reliable measurement of hearing and understanding difficulties in children. The questionnaire may be useful in the diagnostics of auditory performance disorders.

This paper is published within the framework of the project entitled “Integrated system of tools designed for diagnostics and telerehabilitation of the sense organs disorders (hearing, vision, speech, balance, taste, smell)” INNOSENSE, co-financed by the National Centre for Research and Development within the STRATEGMED Programme.
ASHA Working Group of Auditory Processing Disorders. (Central) Auditory Processing Disorders. Technical Report. American Speech-Language-Hearing Association; 2005. (dostęp:26.03.2020).
Muzyka-Furtak E. Surdologopedia. Teoria i Praktyka. Gdańsk: Wydawnictwo Harmonia; 2015.
Czajka N, Grudzień D, Pluta A, Kurkowski ZM, Ganc M, Cieśla K, et al. Efekty terapii Stymulacji Percepcji Słuchowej (SPS-S) u dzieci z zaburzeniami koncentracji uwagi słuchowejoraz centralnymi zaburzeniami przetwarzania słuchowego. Now Audiofonol. 2012; 1(1): 79–86.
Dajos-Krawczyńska K, Piłka A, Jędrzejczak WW, Skarżyński H. Diagnoza zaburzeń przetwarzania słuchowego- przegląd literatury. Now Audiofonol. 2014; 2(5): 9–14.
Barry JG, Tomlin D, Moore DR, Dillon H. Use of Questionnaire-Based Measures in the Assessment of Listening Difficulties in School-Aged Children. Ear Hear. 2015;36(6):e300–e313. doi: 10.1097/AUD.0000000000000180.
Bamiou DE, Musiek FE, Luxon LM. Aetiology and clinical presentations of auditory processing disorders-a review. Arch Dis Child. 2001; 85(5): 361–365.
Musiek FE, Gollegly KM, Lamb LE, Lamb P. Selected issues in screening for central auditory processing dysfunction. Seminars in Hearing. 1990; 11(4): 438–445.
Paczkowska A, Marcinkowski JT. Istota zaburzenia przetwarzania słuchowego- niedocenianego problemu zdrowotnego. Hygeia Public Health. 2013; 48(4): 396–399.
Włodarczyk E, Szkiełkowska A, Skarżyński H, Miaśkiewicz B, Skarżyński PH. Reference values for psychoacoustic tests on Polish school children 7–10 years old. PLOS ONE. 2019; 14(8): e0221689.
Skoczylas A, Cieśla K, Kurkowski ZM, Czajka N, Skarżyński H. Diagnoza i terapia osób z centralnymi zaburzeniami przetwarzania słuchowego w Polsce. Now Audiofonol. 2012; 1(3): 51–55.
British Society of Audiology. Position Statement and Practice Guidance Auditory Processing Disorder; 2017. (dostęp: 26.03.2020).
Majak J. Trudności diagnostyczne w zaburzeniach przetwarzania słuchowego u dzieci. Otolaryngologia. 2013; 12(4): 161–168.
Samsonowicz K, Skoczylas A, Fludra M, Geremek-Samsonowicz A. Trudności językowe i szkolne u 8-letniego chłopca z zaburzeniami przetwarzania słuchowego – studium przypadku. Now Audiofonol. 2014; 3(4): 47–54.
Szkiełkowska A, Włodarczyk E, Senderski A, Skarżyński H, Ganc M, Piłka A. Ocena procesów przetwarzania słuchowego u dzieci z dyslalią. Otolaryngol Pol. 2009; 63(1): 54–57.
Nunes CL, Pereira LD, de Carvalho GS. Scale of Auditory Behaviors and auditory behavior tests for auditory processing assessment in Portuguese children. CoDAS. 2013; 25(3): 209–215.
Krzeszewska P, Kurkowski ZM. Przydatność wybranych kwestionariuszy przesiewowych do wykrywania zaburzeń ośrodkowego przetwarzania słuchowego. Now Audiofonol. 2015; 4(3): 51–54. doi: 10.17431/894767.
Jordan A, Ptaszkowska A, Kurkowski ZM. Testy oceniające celowość zastosowanych wzmocnień dźwięków w klasie i w domu – kwestionariusze ECLB i CHILD oraz możliwości ich zastosowania. Now Audiofonol. 2015; 4(3): 55–61.
Skarżyński H, Bieńkowska K, Gos E, Grudzień D, Skarżyński PH, Czajka N, Wołujewicz K, Włodarczyk E. Cross-Cultural Adaptation of the Scale of Auditory Behaviors Questionnaire. Lang Speech Hear Ser. 2019; 50(4): 683–692.
Musiek FE, Chermak G. Handbook of (Central) Auditory Processing Disorder: Auditory Neuroscience and Diagnosis. Vol. 1. 2nd ed. San Diego: Plural Publishing. 2014. p. 272–273.
Smoski WJ, Brunt MA, Tannahill JC. Children’s Auditory Performance Scale (CHAPS). (dostęp: 17.04.2020).
Schow R, Seikel A. Screening for (Central) Auditory Processing Disorder. In: Musiek FE. Chermak G. (eds). Handbook of (Central) Auditory Processing Disorder: Auditory Neuroscience and Diagnosis. Vol. 1. 2nd ed. San Diego: Plural Publishing. 2007. p. 137–155.
Sharma M, Purdy SC, Humburg P. Cluster Analyses Reveals Subgroups of Children With Suspected Auditory Processing Disorders. Front. Psych. 2019; 10:2481.
Beaton DE, Bombardier C, Guillemin F, Ferraz MB. Guidelines for the process of cross-cultural adaptation of self-report measures. Spine. 2000; 25(24): 3186–3191.
Skarżyński PH. Włodarczyk AW, Kochanek K, Piłka A, Jędrzejczak WW, Olszewski Ł, Bruski Ł, Niedzielski A, Skarżyński H. Central auditory processing disorder (CAPD) tests in a school-age hearing screening programme- analysis of 76.429 children. Ann Agric Environ Med. 2015; 22(1): 90–95.
Hornowska E. Testy psychologiczne. Teoria i praktyka. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Naukowe Scholar; 2014.
Nunnally JC, Bernstein IH. Psychometric theory. New York: McGraw–Hill. 1998.
Terwee CB, Bot SD, de Boer MR, van der Windt DA, Knol DL, Dekker J, Bouter LM, et al. Quality criteria were proposed for measurement properties of health status questionnaires. J Clin Epidemiol. 2007; 60: 34–42. doi: 10.1016/j.jclinepi.2006.03.012.
Field A. Discovering statistics using IBM SPSS Statistics. London: SAGE. 2013.
Smoski WJ, Brunt MA, Tannahill JC. Listening characteristics of children with central auditory processing disorders. Lang Speech Hear Serv Sch. 1992; 23: 145–52.
Illiadou V. Bamiou DE. Psychometric Evaluation of Children With Auditory Processing Disorder (APD): Comparison with Normal-Hearing and Clinical Non-APD Groups. J Speech Lang Hear Res. 2012; 55: 791–99. doi: 10.1044/1092-4388(2011/11-0035).
Ferguson MA, Hall RL, Riley A, Moore DR. Communication. listening. cognitive and speech perception skills in children with auditory processing disorder (APD) or specific language impairment (SLI). J Speech Lang Hear Res. 2011; 54: 211–27.
Szkiełkowska A, Włodarczyk E, Piłka A. Wartości referencyjne wybranych testów słuchowego przetwarzania czasowego dla dzieci polskich w wieku szkolnym. Otolaryngol Pol. 2018; 72(6): 31–36. doi: 10.5604/01.3001.0012.4366.
Hughdal K. Dichotic listening in the study of the auditory laterality. In: The Asymmetrical Brain. Hughdal K, Davidson J, eds. Cambridge: MIT Press. 2003. p. 441–75.
Bless JJ, Westerhausen R, von Koss Torkildsen J, Gudmundsen M, Kompus K, Hugdahl K. Laterality across languages: Results from a global dichotic listening study using a smartphone application. Laterality. 2015; 20(4): 434–52.
Wilson WJ, Jackson A, Pender A, Rose C, Wilson J, Heine C, et al. The chaps sifter and taps-r as predictors of (C)ap skills and (C)apd. J Speech Lang Hear Res. 2011; 54: 278–91.
Journals System - logo
Scroll to top