PL EN
PRACA PRZEGLĄDOWA
 
SŁOWA KLUCZOWE
DZIEDZINY
STRESZCZENIE
Wprowadzenie i cel:
Procesy poznawcze warunku-ją prawidłowe funkcjonowanie organizmu, poprzez odbiór i analizę bodźców docierających ze środowiska. Odpowiednie żywienie stanowi podstawę profilaktyki deficytów poznawczych. Celem niniejszej pracy było opisanie wpływu diety na procesy poznawcze oraz związane z nimi zaburzenia.

Metody przeglądu:
W pracy dokonano analizy publikacji naukowych (m.in. metaanaliz, badań randomizowanych, przeglądów systematycznych) o tematyce medycznej i żywieniowej, z wyłączeniem case studies. Wyszukiwane przeprowadzono, korzystając z baz danych, takich jak PubMed, oraz z czasopism naukowych.

Opis stanu wiedzy:
Deficyty poznawcze objawiają się spadkiem wydajności i obniżeniem koncentracji. Najczęściej występują krótkotrwale i przemijają po ustaniu przyczyny. Mogą jednak stanowić objaw rozwijającej się choroby neurodegeneracyjnej. Wielość przyczyn powstawania zaburzeń poznawczych uniemożliwia całkowite ich wyeliminowanie lub zahamowanie. Czynnikami, na które mamy wpływ, są: masa ciała, żywność spożywana na co dzień, jakość mikroflory jelitowej oraz stosowane suplementy. Odpowiednio dobrana dieta, zawierająca m.in. witaminy z grupy B, przeciwutleniacze, produkty probiotyczne i nienasycone kwasy tłuszczowe, może tymczasowo poprawiać funkcje poznawcze oraz zapobiegać powstawaniu chorób neurodegeneracyjnych, które na dzień dzisiejszy są nieuleczalne. Obiecującą terapią uzupełniającą wydaje się być stosowanie probiotyków, jednak potwierdzenie tej tezy wymaga przeprowadzenia większej liczby badań

Podsumowanie:
Kluczem do utrzymania sprawnych funkcji poznawczych jest kompleksowe dbanie o żywienie i zdrowy tryb życia. Skuteczność w zapobieganiu chorobom otępiennym jest szczególnie wysoka przed wystąpieniem pierw-szych objawów. Odpowiednia dieta może zahamować rozwój chorób neurodegeneracyjnych, jednak nie wpływa na ich regresję


Introduction and objective:
Cognitive functions are the precondition of proper functioning of an organism in terms of reception and processing of stimuli coming from the environment. Proper nutrition is a basis of prevention of cognitive impairment. The aim of the presented study was to describe the effect of nutrition on cognitive functions, and the related cognitive disorders.

Review methods:
Scientific publications found in databases, e.g. PubMed and scientific journals were analyzed, including meta-analyses, randomized trials, and systematic reviews, concerning the scope of medical and nutritional problems, excluding case reports.

Abbreviated description of the state of knowledge:
Signs and symptoms of cognitive disorder include decrease in productivity and attention deficit. Most often these symptoms are transient and disappear with cessation of the underlying cause, but they may also be the sign of development of a neurodegenerative disease. Due to the fact that the development of cognitive disorders is multicausal, it is impossible to achieve its entire elimination or inhibition. The factors which we can modify are: body weight, nutrition, gut microbiota quality and dietary supplements. A suitable diet rich in vitamin B, antioxidants, probiotics and unsaturated fatty acids may temporarily improve cognitive functions and prevent neurodegenerative diseases which today remain incurable. Using probiotic supplements can be taken into consideration as a promising complementary therapy; however, it requires further research.

Summary:
Complex care of balanced diet and health promoting life mode is the key to maintaining cognitive functions. The efficiency in prevention of dementia is particularly high before the occurrence of the initial symptoms of the disease. Proper diet may inhibit the progress of neurodegenerative diseases; however, it has no effect on their regression

 
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