Introduction and objective:
Artificial sweeteners are noncaloric substances which are added to multiple products. There used by many people as substitutes for sugar in the belief this will be beneficial to their health. However, there is much controversy about artificial sweeteners and the safety of their consumption. The purpose of this review was to assess the newest articles on this topic, and define impact of artificial sweeteners on different aspects of health.

Review methods:
1) The research question was defined on the basis of recent literature; 2) inclusion criteria: indexed in Pubmed database, published in last 20 years, at least 75% of included articles published after 2015; 3) exclusion criteria: Case Reports, studies in languages other than Polish or English; 4) studies that seemed to be significantly biased.

Brief description of the state of knowledge:
Each sweetener may have a unique impact on the human body and can be taken from a variety of sources. Only a few authors have taken these two facts into account in their studies, the results of which may be inconclusive or misinterpreted. Artificial sweeteners may increase the risk of cancer, cardiovascular diseases, diabetesmellitus and obesity; however, these thesis are uncertain due to lack of data and possible reverse causation in observational cohort studies. There is also the presumption that artificial sweeteners can alter gut microbiota and cause a change in the glycaemic response of the organism. In opposition to this, artificial sweeteners could be useful tool in reducing weight

According to the current literature, it is difficult to state unequivocally that artificial sweeteners have a positive, neutral, or negative impact on human health. In future studies, researchers should differentiate the types of sweeteners and focus on including all possible sources.

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