Risk factors for cardiovascular diseases (CVD) include, among others, elevated levels of total and LDL cholesterol, as well as reduced levels of HDL fraction, which are connected with a generally understood life style, such as nutritional habits, stimulants and physical activity. Dietary recommendations for CVD prevention indicate the need for limiting the consumption of fatty acids in favor of mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids, with the reduction of cholesterol derived from diet.

The aim of the study is to compare the effect of consumption of selected fats on changes in the concentrations of total cholesterol and its LDL and HDL fractions.

Brief description of the state of knowledge:
Improved dietary habits should include the consumption of seasonal vegetables and fruits, whole grain products, as well as the limitation of consumption of products of animal origin, in favour of plant-based oils. Unfortunately, these recommendations do not include fats, such as coconut or palm oils, which are sources of SFA, while, and at the same time, they are also vegetables oils. Available reports concerning the preventive effect of dairy products and milk fat indicate a possible positive relationship between butter consumption and CVD. Consumption of olive oil or rapeseed oil is correlated with an improved lipid profile, which is related with a high content of MUFA and PUFA, as well as the diversity of active compounds.

High popularity of new dietary patterns, based on high-fat diets, contributes to the growing need for patient education concerning possible adverse consequences of these diets. Suggestions about fat choices with the highest impact on the reduction of CVD risk factors are also needed.

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