Introduction and objective:
It is widely known that the ageing process is associated with the occurrence of morphological, anatomical, and functional changes within the brain. Consequently, memory, elective attention and concentration may be impaired, and thus the quality of daily life may deteriorate. Reduced mental efficiency increases the susceptibility of the brain to neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer›s disease (AD) or Parkinson›s disease (PD). One of the main aims of this study was to examine the impact of diet composition and the use of various nutritional strategies, such as calorie restriction (CR) and intermittent fasting, (IF) on brain health.

Review methods:
An electronic search strategy was used, including MeSH and key words.

Brief description of the state of knowledge:
There are nutritional factors, including the amount of energy supplied and diet composition, which are important in brain functioning, especially during ageing. Based on research from recent years many strategies have been developed, the use of which could delay the neurological ageing process and the development of associated disorders and age-related pathologies. This research has focused mainly on nutritional interventions that delay (neurological) ageing, especially CR and IF. Particularly, altering the proportion of macronutrients appears to have an impact on life expectancy and longevity; a growing body of evidence shows that modulation of macronutrient proportions can affect brain ageing and cognition and, consequently, delay brain ageing and reduce the risk of developing neurodegenerative diseases, such as dementia.

There is a need for further randomized studies taking into account various factors, such as: genetic background or the severity of the disease, due to which it will be possible to develop appropriate strategies to prevent dementia in the elderly.

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