PRACA ORYGINALNA
Analiza wielowymiarowa czynników ryzyka depresji poporodowej
 
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Ukryj
1
Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń, Faculty of Health Sciences, Collegium Medicum, Bydgoszcz, Poland
AUTOR DO KORESPONDENCJI
Marzena Kaźmierczak   

Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruñ, Faculty of Health Sciences, Collegium Medicum in Bydgoszcz, ul. Łukasiewicza 1, 85-821 Bydgoszcz, Poland
 
Med Og Nauk Zdr. 2020;26(2):139–145
 
SŁOWA KLUCZOWE
DZIEDZINY
STRESZCZENIE ARTYKUŁU
Wstęp:
Depresja poporodowa dotyczy od 7 do 20% kobiet na całym świecie. Ocena ryzyka objawów depresyjnych odgrywa kluczową rolę w zapewnieniu zdrowia psychicznego i prawidłowego funkcjonowania kobiet po porodzie.

Cel pracy:
Ocena nasilenia depresji poporodowej oraz analiza wielowymiarowa czynników ryzyka.

Materiał i metody:
Do badania zaproszono 80 kobiet w III trymestrze ciąży, które poproszono o kontakt po porodzie. Rekrutacja do badania odbywała się w czasie pobytu kobiet ciężarnych na oddziale patologii ciąży i poradniach: położniczo- ginekologicznej, diabetologicznej oraz w położniczej izbie przyjęć. Projekt badawczy przeprowadzono od lutego do maja 2019 roku. Ostatecznie wzięło w nim udział 70 kobiet będących średnio w 4. tygodniu połogu. Narzędzia badawcze stanowiły: kwestionariusz ankiety własnego autorstwa oraz Edynburska Skala Depresji Poporodowej.

Wyniki:
Ryzyko objawów depresyjnych stwierdzono u 18,6% kobiet po porodzie. W wielowymiarowej regresji logistycznej wykazano, że wiek (p = 0,014), niepokój z powodu macierzyństwa (p = 0,019) oraz występowanie trudności w opiece nad dzieckiem (p = 0,005) były czynnikami istotnie powiązanymi z objawami depresji poporodowej.

Wnioski:
Częstość występowania zaburzeń depresyjnych po porodzie w badanej próbie nie różniła się znacząco od częstości podawanej w literaturze światowej. Wraz z wiekiem kobiet wzrastało ryzyko objawów depresji poporodowej. Istotnymi wyznacznikami objawów depresyjnych okazały się zmienne: niepokój z powodu macierzyństwa oraz trudności w opiece nad dzieckiem. Rodność na poziomie 3 lub więcej porodów i poszczególne typy osobowości kobiet nie warunkowały występowania depresji poporodowej.


Introduction and objective:
Postpartum depression affects between 7% – 20% of women worldwide. Risk assessment of depressive symptoms plays a key role in ensuring the mental health and proper functioning of women after childbirth. The aim of the study is to assess the severity of postpartum depression and conduct multivariate analysis of risk factors.

Material and methods:
80 women in the third trimester of pregnancy were invited to participate in the study and asked for contact after childbirth. Recruitment for the study took place while the pregnant women were staying at the Pregnancy Pathology Ward and the Obstetrics and Gynaecology Clinic, Diabetology Clinic and Obstetrics Emergency Room. The research project was carried out from February – May 2019. Ultimately, 70 women took part in the project on average in week 4 of puerperium. The research tools were a questionnaire of own design and the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale.

Results:
The risk of depressive symptoms was found in 18.6% of women after childbirth. Multi-dimensional logistic regression showed that age (p = 0.014), anxiety due to motherhood (p = 0.019) and the occurrence of difficulties in looking after a child (p = 0.005) were the factors significantly associated with the symptoms of postpartum depression.

Conclusions:
The incidence of postpartum depression in the study sample did not differ significantly from the incidence reported in the literature. Worldwide. The risk of postpartum depression symptoms increased with age. Anxiety due to motherhood and difficulties in looking after a child proved to be crucial determinants of depressive symptoms. Fertility at the level of three or more deliveries and individual personality types of women did not influence the occurrence of postpartum depression.

 
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