Effect of cigarette smoking on bone mineral density and mass of bone tissue in males
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Zakład Antropologii i Promocji Zdrowia, Katedra Nauk Biomedycznych, Akademia Wychowania Fizycznego Józefa Piłsudskiego w Warszawie
Wyższa Szkoła Rehabilitacji w Warszawie
Med Og Nauk Zdr. 2014;20(4):449-452
Introduction and objective:
According to the studies conducted within the Programme for Control of Tobacco Smoking Consequences in Poland in 2011, a slight, however, systematic increase in the number of tobacco smokers may be observed. Nearly every third Pole aged 15 and over admits to habitual tobacco smoking. The objective of the study was indication of the relationship between forearm bone mineral density and bone tissue mass, and the attitude towards tobacco smoking among males. In addition, the effect of such characteristics as age and body mass index on the mineralization of bone tissue was examined.

Material and Methods:
The study was conducted in a group of 107 males, mean age 32.8, living in Warsaw. In the group analyzed, radial bone mineral density and bone tissue mass was assessed using the DXA method. Also, basic anthropometric measurements were performed. The respondents’ attitudes towards tobacco smoking were analyzed by the survey method, using the GATS questionnaire.

Based on the T- score, a better mineralization of bone tissue was noted among non-smoking males. A more favourable value of the reference T-score with respect to the peak bone mass was confirmed in the population of young, healthy males with an elevated body weight. The highest BMD value was found in males who were never-smokers, especially in the proximal part, compared to those who smoked more than 15 cigarettes daily.

Considering the presence of lowered bone mineral density among smoking males, it is recommended to carry out screening tests, as well undertake actions aimed at the dissemination of information concerning the effects of tobacco-related diseases, including osteopenia and osteoporosis

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