Medical and forensic aspects of energy drinks and caffeine shots
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Zakład Medycyny Sądowej Uniwersytetu Medycznego im. Karola Marcinkowskiego w Poznaniu, Polska
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Maciej Kycler   

Zakład Medycyny Sądowej Uniwersytetu Medycznego im. Karola Marcinkowskiego w Poznaniu, Rokietnicka 10, 60-806, Poznań, Polska
Introduction and objective:
The number of users of energy drinks and caffeine shots worldwide is very high and varies depending on the age group. In many countries, legislative measures have been taken to restrict access to these products for minors. The main ingredient in energy boosters is caffeine which is responsible for the stimulating properties of these products. Other substances, such as guarana, taurine, vitamins, and simple sugars, are also included in their composition. The aim of the study is to investigate the impact of these products on the body, and their medical and forensic aspects.

Review methods:
A literature review was conducted using PubMed, Medline, Google Scholar, and information from legal documents and product labels available on the market.

Brief description of the state of knowledge:
The use of high-caffeine products is associated with a negative impact on various systems in the human body, with cardiovascular issues being the most commonly observed. Based on available literature, it can be speculated that children are most vulnerable to the harmful effects of these substances. Another concern related to energy drinks and caffeine shots is their interaction with many medications and other substances. There have been cases reported of overdosing on energy drinks, suicide attempts, and deaths, as a result. In medico-legal diagnostics, toxicological examinations regarding caffeine levels in the blood and appropriate differential diagnostics are crucial.

The consumption of energy drinks and caffeine shots may pose a threat to health. Further analyses of the broad impact of these products on the human body, with special consideration for children, are needed.

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