Awareness of congenital cytomegalovirus infection among young people studying non-medical subjects
More details
Hide details
Department of Virology, National Institute of Public Health – National Institute of Hygiene, Warsaw, Poland
Corresponding author
Agnieszka Trzcińska   

Department of Virology, National Institute of Public Health – National Institute of Hygiene, Poland
Med Og Nauk Zdr. 2019;25(4):240-244
Congenital infections are still a serious public health problem. They may be related, among others, to the lack of immunization against many pathogens that would reduce the number of cases of infection among pregnant women. In this situation, educational activities are important, disseminating knowledge about available prophylaxis.

Aim of the study is to assess the state of knowledge of young people studying in fields not related to medical care, about congenital infections, mainly congenital CMV infection

Material and methods:
The study was conducted by a questionnaire survey. The study group consisted of 225 students aged 20–29 (99 women and 126 men). The questions concerned, among others: knowledge of diseasees/infections affecting the foetus/child; sources and activities related to the risk of CMV infection; hygiene behaviours that can help prevent CMV infection.

Down syndrome (88%) and autism (80.9%) belonged to the most frequently reported diseases that may affect children. Knowledge of congenital infections, in addition to congenital toxoplasmosis (28.9%), was below 10%. Knowledge of the fact that CMV infection can be transmitted from mother to foetus was confirmed by 16/225 respondents. Only 8.9% of the respondents knew at least one hygienic behaviour that could contribute to a reduction in the number of CMVinfections, and over 91% did not indicate any such behaviour.

The survey conducted among students revealed that knowledge about congenital infections possessed by potential parents is not satisfactory. The study clearly indicated the need to undertake educational activities.

Polonio CM, de Freitas CL, Zanluqui NG, Peron JPS. Zika virus congenital syndrome: experimental models and clinical aspects. J Venom Anim Toxins Incl Trop Dis. 2017; 23: 41. https://doi:10.1186/s40409-017....
Frenkel LD, Gomez F, Sabahi F. The pathogenesis of microcephaly resulting from congenital infections: why is my baby’s head so small? Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2018; 37(2): 209–226. https://doi:10.1007/s10096-017....
Silasi M, Cardenas I, Kwon JY, Racicot K, Aldo P, Mor G. Viral infections during pregnancy. Am J Reprod Immunol. 2015; 73(3): 199–213. https://doi:10.1111/aji.12355.
Arora N, Sadovsky Y, Dermody TS, Coyne CB. Microbial Vertical Transmission during Human Pregnancy. Cell Host Microbe. 2017; 21(5): 561–567. https://doi:10.1016/j.chom.201....
Leruez-Ville M, Ville Y. Fetal cytomegalovirus infection. Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol. 2017; 38: 97–107. https://doi:10.1016/j.bpobgyn.....
Naing ZW, Scott GM, Shand A, Hamilton ST, van Zuylen WJ, Basha J, et al. Congenital cytomegalovirus infection in pregnancy: a review of prevalence, clinical features, diagnosis and prevention. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol. 2016; 56(1): 9–18. https://doi:10.1111/ajo.12408.
Palma S, Roversi MF, Bettini M, Mazzoni S, Pietrosemoli P, Lucaccioni L, et al. Hearing loss in children with congenital cytomegalovirus infection: an 11-year retrospective study based on laboratory database of a tertiary paediatric hospital. Acta Otorhinolaryngol Ital. 2019; 39(1): 40–45. https://doi: 10.14639/0392-100X-2020.
Congenital CMV and Hearing Loss. (dostęp: 13.09.2019).
Counting the cost of CMV. The economic impact of CMV. (dostęp: 13.09.2019).
Besnard M, Lastere S, Teissier A, Cao-Lormeau V, Musso D. Evidence of perinatal transmission of Zika virus, French Polynesia, December 2013 and February 2014. Euro Surveill. 2014; 19(13): 20751.
Martines RB, Bhatnagar J, de Oliveira Ramos AM, Davi HP, Iglezias SD, Kanamura CT, et al. Pathology of congenital Zika syndrome in Brazil: a case series. Lancet 2016; 388(10047): 898–904. https://doi:10.1016/S0140–6736....
Epelboin S, Dulioust E, Epelboin L, Benachi A, Merlet F, Patrat C. Zika virus and reproduction: facts, questions and current management. Hum Reprod Update 2017; 23(6): 629–645. https://doi:10.1093/humupd/dmx....
Lombardi G, Garofoli F, Stronati M. Congenital cytomegalovirus infection: treatment, sequelae and follow-up. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2010; Suppl 3: 45–48. https://doi:10.3109/14767058.2....
Bukasa A, Campbell H, Brown K, Bedford H, Ramsay M, Amirthalingam G, et al. Rubella infection in pregnancy and congenital rubella in United Kingdom, 2003 to 2016. Euro Surveill. 2018; 23(19): 17–00381. https://doi:10.2807/1560-7917.....
Rawlinson WD, Boppana SB, Fowler KB, Kimberlin DW, Lazzarotto T, Alain S, et al. Congenital cytomegalovirus infection in pregnancy and the neonate: consensus recommendations for prevention, diagnosis, and therapy. Lancet Infect Dis. 2017; 17(6): e177–188. https://doi:10.1016/S1473–3099....
Tastad KJ, Schleiss MR, Lammert SM, Basta NE. Awareness of congenital cytomegalovirus and acceptance of maternal and newborn screening. PLoS One. 2019; 14(8): e0221725. https://doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0221725.
Price SM, Bonilla E, Zador P, Levis DM, Kilgo CL, Cannon MJ. Educating women about congenital cytomegalovirus: assessment of health education materials through a web-based survey. BMC Womens Health 2014; 14: 144. https://doi:10.1186/s12905-014....
Cannon MJ, Westbrook K, Levis D, Schleiss MR, Thackeray R, Pass RF. Awareness of and behaviors related to child-to-mother transmission of cytomegalovirus. Prev Med. 2012; 54(5): 351–357. https://doi:10.1016/j.ypmed.20....
Trzcińska A, Częścik A, Siennicka J. Stan wiedzy na temat zakażenia wrodzonego CMV wśród kobiet ciężarnych i planujących ciążę. Med Og Nauk Zdr. 2017; 23(3): 179–184. https://doi:10.26444/monz/7624....
Lehmann LM, Santos PC, Scaini CJ. Evaluation of Pregnant and Postpartum Women’s Knowledge about Toxoplasmosis in Rio Grande – RS, Brazil. Rev Bras Ginecol Obstet. 2016; 38(11): 538–544. https://doi:10.1055/s-0036-159....
Borges ALV, Moreau C, Burke A, Dos Santos OA, Chofakian CB. Women’s reproductive health knowledge, attitudes and practices in relation to the Zika virus outbreak in northeast Brazil. PLoS One 2018; 13(1): e0190024. https://doi:10.1371/journal.po....
Binda S, Pellegrinelli L, Terraneo M, Caserini A, Primache V, Bubba L, et al. What people know about congenital CMV: an analysis of a large heterogeneous population through a web-based survey. BMC Infect Dis. 2016; 16(1): 513. https://doi: 10.1186/s12879-016-1861-z.
Journals System - logo
Scroll to top