Introduction and objective:
The constantly increasing number of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) represents a global public health problem. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze the number of STD/STI cases, including syphilis, in Poland and Europe from 2015 to 2021. The conducted analysis allowed us to draw conclusions and propose recommendations for counteracting the rise in STD/STI cases.

Material and methods:
The method used was a retrospective analysis of documents, providing information on the number of cases of STD/STI, including syphilis, in Poland and Europe in source texts of the Central Statistical Office (GUS) and the European Center for Disease Prevention and Control.

A significant percentage of individuals diagnosed with syphilis were men, particularly MSM (men who have sex with men). The areas with the highest detection rates were urban/highly urbanized areas. The dominant age group among those infected were young people (25-35 years old). The number of syphilis cases increased in countries where health/sexual education was not rated as satisfactory by respondents (e.g., in Poland, the incidence of syphilis per 100,000 people was 3.3 in 2015, 4.2 in 2019, and 4.5 in 2021). Syphilis is a problem that all of Europe faces, and its incidence is beginning to rise significantly in some countries such as Poland, Portugal, and Denmark.

A key role should be focused on health education, as in countries where a strategy emphasizing health education, including education about STDs/STIs (such as in Bulgaria), has been implemented, the number of cases has gradually decreased. This form of intervention should particularly target young people, as they constituted the highest percentage of cases among different age groups.

Sinka K. The global burden of sexually transmitted infections. Clin Dermatol. 2023 Dec 23;S0738-081X(23)00254-7. clindermatol.2023.12.002.
Korzeniewski K. Choroby przenoszone drogą płciową u powracających z podróży. Forum Medycyny Rodzinnej. 2020;14(1):11–25.
Peeling RW, Mabey D, Chen XS, Garcia PJ. Syphilis. Lancet. 2023 Jul 22;402(10398):336–346. 6736(22)02348-0.
Jakubowicz O. Kiła – realne zagrożenie – część I. Nowiny Lekarskie. 2009;78(5–6):335–338.
Tao YT, Gao TY, Li HY, et al. Global, regional, and national trends of syphilis from 1990 to 2019: the 2019 global burden of disease study. BMC Public Health. 2023 Apr 24;23(1):754. s12889-023-15510-4.
Fu L, Sun Y, Han M, et al. Incidence Trends of Five Common Sexually Transmitted Infections Excluding HIV From 1990 to 2019 at the Global, Regional, and National Levels: Results From the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019. Frontiers in Medicine. 2022 Mar 2;9:851635. https://
Rzepa T, Żaba R, Jakubowicz O, et al. Świadomość stygmatu własnej choroby a wizerunek samego siebie. Opuscula Sociologica. 2012;1(1):105–115.
Anderson JD, Li X, Qiao S, et al. The mediating effects of functions of social support on HIV-related trauma and health-related quality of life for PLHIV in China. AIDS Care. 2020 Jun;32(6):673–680. https://doi. org/10.1080/09540121.2019.1622633.
Namysł A, Kazenas A, Bugajska J. Promocja zdrowia w miejscu pracy – inwestycja w zdrowie pracownika i w kapitał firmy. Bezpieczeństwo Pracy: nauka i praktyka. 2012;6:8–11.
Wilkins NJ, Rasberry C, Liddon N, et al. Addressing HIV/Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Pregnancy Prevention Through Schools: An Approach for Strengthening Education, Health Services, and School Environments That Promote Adolescent Sexual Health and Well-Being. J Adolesc Health. 2022 Apr;70(4):540–549. jadohealth.2021.05.017.
Allsop Y, Anderman EM. Developing Sexual Self-Efficacy Beliefs During Adolescence: Do Health Teachers Really Matter? J Youth Adolesc. 2022 Nov;51(11):2061–2076.
Olejniczak D, Wodzyńska K, Religioni U. The high school graduate’s knowledge of sexually transmitted diseases. Nursing Problems / Problemy Pielęgniarstwa. 2012;20(3):317–326.
Rummel M, Clanner-Engelshofen BM, Nellessen T, et al. Evaluation of the knowledge of students concerning sexually transmitted infections in Bavaria/Germany (a cross-sectional study). J Dtsch Dermatol Ges. 2022 Feb;20(2):169–176.
Evans-Paulson R, Widman L, Javidi H, et al. Examining the efficacy of STD testing public health messages tailored to youth's regulatory focus. J Exp Psychol Appl. 2022 Dec;28(4):835–848. xap0000421.
Syphilis–Annual epidemiological report for 2019. European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. pdf. (access: 2023.11.25).
Syphilis-Annual epidemiological report for 2021. European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. default/files/documents/syphilis-annual-epidemiological-report-2021. pdf. (access: 2023.11.25).
Cowan S, Wessman M, Kähler J. Department of Infectious Epidemio- logy and Prevention, S. Hoffmann, Bacteria, Parasites & Fungi. Statens Serum Institut. (access: 2023.12.01).
Health Protection Surveillance Centre. Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs) in Ireland: Trends to the end of 2020. Health Protection Surveil-lance Center. publications/stireports/2020reports/Sexually%20Transmitted%20Di-seases%20(STIs)%20in%20Ireland%202019%20and%202020_provisio- nal%20data.pdf (access: 2023.11.28).
Young H, Burke L, Nic Gabhainn S. Sexual intercourse, age of initia- tion and contraception among adolescents in Ireland: findings from the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) Ireland study. BMC Public Health. 2018 Mar 16;18(1):362.
Syphilis-Annual epidemiological report for 2022. European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. publications-data/syphilis-annual-epidemiological-report-2022. (access: 2023.11.25).
Jardim Santos C, Gomes B, Ribeiro AI. Mapping Geographical Patterns and High Rate Areas for Sexually Transmitted Infections in Portugal: A Retrospective Study Based on the National Epidemiological Surve- illance System. Sex Transm Dis. 2020 Apr;47(4):261–268. https://doi. org/10.1097/OLQ.0000000000001122.
Orzechowska M, Cybulski M, Krajewska-Kulak E, et al. Comparative Analysis of the Incidence of Selected Sexually Transmitted Bacterial Infections in Poland in 2010–2015: A Retrospective Cohort Study.Journal of Clinical Medicine. 2022;11(4):998. jcm11040998.
Zapadalność na kiłę na 100 tys. ludności 2009–2021. Tablice w for- macie XLSX. Główny Urząd Statystyczny. (access: 2023.12.02).
Jąderek I. Zdrowie seksualne młodzieży – wybrane zagadnienia. Fundacja Dajemy Dzieciom Siłę. nt/9/8/0/6/9806b3e0ede09f24c5a2f54d66b6bf465fa42663/Dzieci%20 si%C4%99%20licz%C4%85%202022%20-%20Zdrowie_seksualne.pdf. (access: 2023.12.02).
Muczko Z, Wilk W, Lewandowska A. WDŻ na dwóje. Ponton. https:// pdf. (access: 2023.12.02).
Developing a national strategy for the prevention and control of sexually transmitted infections. European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. strategies-to-control-STIs. (access: 2023.12.02).
Vives N, Garcia de Olalla P, González V, et al. Recent trends in sexually transmitted infections among adolescents, Catalonia, Spain, 2012–2017. Int J STD AIDS. 2020 Oct;31(11):1047–1054. http://dx.doi. org/10.1177/0956462420940911.
Zhang J, Ma B, Han X, et al. Global, regional, and national burdens of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections in adolescents and young adults aged 10–24 years from 1990 to 2019: a trend analysis based on the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019. Lancet Child Adolesc Health. 2022 Nov;6(11):763–776.
Małgorzata Bereźnicka. Wychowanie do życia w rodzinie – opi- nie i postulaty byłych uczniów. Uniwersytet Pedagogiczny im. KEN w Krakowie. dle/11716/1164/AF166--02--Wychowanie-do-zycia--Bereznicka. pdf?sequence=4&isAllowed=y. (access: 2024.05.10).
Arakawa S. Education for prevention of STIs to young people (2021 version) Standardized slides in youth education for the prevention of sexually transmitted infections-for high school students and for junior high school students. J Infect Chemother. 2021 Oct;27(10):1375–1383.
Chayachinda C, Kerdklinhom C, Tachawatcharapunya S, et al. Video-based education versus nurse-led education for partner notification in Thai women with sexually transmitted infections: a randomized controlled trial. Int J STD AIDS. 2018 Nov;29(11):1076–1083.
Chow K, Edi R, Gin G, et al. Attitudes of women participating in a clinical trial on point-of-care testing and home testing for STIs. Int J STD AIDS. 2020 Dec;31(14):1352–1358.
Journals System - logo
Scroll to top