Effect of cigarette smoking on bone mineral density and mass of bone tissue in males
More details
Hide details
Zakład Antropologii i Promocji Zdrowia, Katedra Nauk Biomedycznych, Akademia Wychowania Fizycznego Józefa Piłsudskiego w Warszawie
Wyższa Szkoła Rehabilitacji w Warszawie
Med Og Nauk Zdr. 2014;20(4):449–452
Introduction and objective:
According to the studies conducted within the Programme for Control of Tobacco Smoking Consequences in Poland in 2011, a slight, however, systematic increase in the number of tobacco smokers may be observed. Nearly every third Pole aged 15 and over admits to habitual tobacco smoking. The objective of the study was indication of the relationship between forearm bone mineral density and bone tissue mass, and the attitude towards tobacco smoking among males. In addition, the effect of such characteristics as age and body mass index on the mineralization of bone tissue was examined.

Material and Methods:
The study was conducted in a group of 107 males, mean age 32.8, living in Warsaw. In the group analyzed, radial bone mineral density and bone tissue mass was assessed using the DXA method. Also, basic anthropometric measurements were performed. The respondents’ attitudes towards tobacco smoking were analyzed by the survey method, using the GATS questionnaire.

Based on the T- score, a better mineralization of bone tissue was noted among non-smoking males. A more favourable value of the reference T-score with respect to the peak bone mass was confirmed in the population of young, healthy males with an elevated body weight. The highest BMD value was found in males who were never-smokers, especially in the proximal part, compared to those who smoked more than 15 cigarettes daily.

Considering the presence of lowered bone mineral density among smoking males, it is recommended to carry out screening tests, as well undertake actions aimed at the dissemination of information concerning the effects of tobacco-related diseases, including osteopenia and osteoporosis

Ward KD, Klesges RC. A Meta-Analysis of the Effects of Cigarette Smoking on Mineral Density. Calcif Tissue Int. 2001; 68: 259–270.
Wüst RC, Winwood K, Wilks DC. i in. Effects of smoking on tibial and radial bone mass and strength may diminish with age. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2010 Jun; 95(6): 2763–2771.
Shu-guang G, Ling Ch, Kang-hua L. i in. Effect of epimedium pubescen flavonoid on bone mineral status and bone turnover in male rats chronically exposed to cigarette smoke. Gao et al. BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders. 2012; 13: 105.
Watts NB, Adler RA, Bilezikian JP, Drake MT. i in. Osteoporosis in men: an Endocrine Society clinical practice guideline. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2012 Jun; 97(6): 1802–1822.
Tamaki J, Iki M, Fujita Y i in. Impact of smoking on bone mineral density and bone metabolism in elderly men: the Fujiwara-kyo Osteoporosis Risk in Men (FORMEN) study. Osteoporos Int. 2011; 22: 133–141.
Law MR, Hackshaw AK. A meta-analysis of cigarette smoking, bone mineral density and risk of hip fracture, recognition of a major effect. BMJ. 1997; 315: 841–846.
Ward KD, Klesges RC. A meta-analysis of the effects of cigarette smoking on bone mineral density. Calcif Tissue Int. 2001; 68: 259–270.
Kanis JA, Johnell O, Oden A i in. A Smoking and fracture risk: a meta-analysis. Osteoporos Int. 2005; 16: 155–162.
Taes Y, Lapauw B, Vanbillemont G i in. Early Smoking Is Associated With Peak Bone Mass and Prevalent Fractures in Young, Healthy Men. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research, 2010 February; 25(2): 379–387.
Blanke DD, da Costa e Silva V. Tobacco control legislation: an intro¬ductory guide. Tools for advancing tobacco control in the 21st century. Chapter XII. World Health Organization, Geneva 2004; 184–187.
Ringe JD. Osteoporoza u mężczyzn. Medicographia. 2011; 23.
Szczepaniak-Chicheł L, Mastej M, Jóźwiak J i in. Występowanie nad¬ciśnienia tętniczego w zależności od masy ciała w populacji polskiej – badanie LIPIDOGRAM 2004. Nadciśn Tętn. 2007; 11: 195–204.
Jarosz M. (red.). Otyłość, żywienie, aktywność fizyczna, zdrowie Polaków. Diagnoza stanu odżywiania, aktywności fizycznej i żywieniowych czynników ryzyka otyłości oraz przewlekłych chorób niezakaźnych w Polsce 1960–2005, Instytut Żywności i Żywienia, Warszawa 2006.
Wieloośrodkowe Ogólnopolskie Badanie Stanu Zdrowia Ludności. Program WOBASZ. Wyd. Instytut Kardiologii, Warszawa 2005; 90: 1–128.
Sneve M, Emaus N, Joakimsen RM i in. The association between serum parathyroid hormone and bone mineral density and the impact of smoking: the Tromso Study. Eur J Endocrinol. 2008; 158: 401–409.
Kyriacos EI, Jaikirty RSJ, Lawrence E i in. Bone structure and geometry in young men: The influence of smoking, alcohol intake and physical activity. BONE; 2013 Jan; 52(1): 17–26, 10p.