Early Childhood Caries (ECC), one of the most prevalent chronic diseases among children, is still a severe problem worldwide. It is an infectious disease of mineralized tooth tissue that can affect general health.

The aim of thisstudy is to summarize evidence-based knowledge on the etiology, prevalence, clinical manifestation and management of ECC, as well as its consequences for proper development.

Materials and method:
The research included the PubMed and Google Scholar databases. Only articles published in 2013 and later were reviewed.

Brief description of the state of knowledge:
The prevalence of ECC among countries is highly inhomogeneous. It is reported that in some countries more than a half of children suffer from ECC. Furthermore, ECC can vary in severity and is classified into 3 types: type 1 (mild to moderate), type 2 (moderate to severe), type 3 (severe). The most common risk factors include beverages containing sugar, large amounts and high frequency of sugar consumption along with the lack of proper oral hygiene. Studies have shown that social background can also strongly affect the probability of ECC occurrence. Depending on severity, ECC can lead to various consequences that have been divided into short- and long-term. ECC can even cause developmental problems.

ECC is an entirely preventable disease. It appears that the awareness of gynaecologists and paediatricians may be one of the crucial factors. These specialists are the first doctors that have contact with the mother and her infant, thanks to chich they can convey knowledge about ECC before it appears. On the other hand, the final effect depends on parent’s behaviour and willingness to apply the guidelines.

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