Coffee and wine with ochratoxin A –exposure risk assessment resulting from its consumption
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Wojewódzka Stacja Sanitarno-Epidemiologiczna w Krakowie, Polska
Małopolski Centrum Monitoringu Żywności, Wydział Technologii Żywności, Uniwersytet Rolniczy w Krakowie, Polska
Piotr Pokrzywa   

Wojewódzka Stacja Sanitarno-Epidemiologiczna w Krakowie, Pradnicka 76, 31-202, Krakow, Polska
Introduction and objective:
The aim of this study was to assess the consumer risk resulting from the exposure to ochratoxin A (OTA) intake with coffee and wine.

Material and methods:
Calculations were made on the basis of the levels of OTA contamination determined in coffee and wine available in retail in the Małopolskie province of Poland in 2016–2019. A total of 56 samples were analysed: 24 wine samples (20 red wines and 4 white wines), 16 samples of roasted coffee beans or ground coffee, and 16 samples of instant coffee. All samples were examined for the level of OTA contamination by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD).

Of the 56 samples examined, ochratoxin A was found in 16 samples (28.6%). Among the tested samples, this toxin was most often detected in instant coffee, i.e. in 10 of 16 samples (62.5%), average level – 1.63 μg kg-1. Average level of OTA in roasted coffee – 1.09 μg kg-1, and presence of OTA confirmed in 5 out of 16 samples (31.3%). In contrast, in wine, only one of the 16 samples had this toxin (0.61 μg l-1).

OTA contamination levels observed in all examined products were below the maximal residue levels (MRL) specified in the regulations of food law for these products. Assessment of consumer exposure to OTA resulting from the intake of this toxin from coffee and wine, in general showed that consumption of these products is safe; however, under extreme assumptions of high consumption of these products, the permissible OTA intakes will be exceeded.

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