Polish version of The Attitudes to Chocolate Questionnaire (ACQ)
More details
Hide details
Zakład Psychologii Medycznej, Warszawski Uniwersytet Medyczny
Corresponding author
Mariusz Jaworski   

02-091 Warszawa, ul. Żwirki i Wigury 81a, Poland
Med Og Nauk Zdr. 2013;19(4):549-555
The growing trend of chocolate consumption due to its stimulant, euphoric and antidepressant properties contributes to the prevalence of the phenomenon of emotional eating, which can have adverse health consequences.

The aim of this study was to adapt the English version of the questionnaire entitled “The attitudes to chocolate questionnaire (ACQ)” developed by Benton et al. to Polish conditions. This questionnaire assesses individual differences in emotional eating and chocolate consumption desire.

Material and Methods:
We conducted a language validation of the original version of ACQ, followed by psychometric validation according to international standards. The study group was composed of 160 individuals with normal body weight. The consumption and desire to consume chocolate were measured. SPSS Statistics 17.0 was used for statistical analyzes.

As a result of factor analysis using the principal components method we identified three main factors: 1) a sense of guilt, 2) emotional eating, and 3) desire for chocolate. In addition, two supplementary questions were introduced to the questionnaire. Sense of guilt scale is connected with the experience of negative consequences after eating chocolate. Emotional eating scale applies to chocolate consumption under stress, boredom and frustration. On the other hand, the scale of the desire for chocolate assesses the intensity of thoughts and feelings associated with the desire to consume chocolate. Using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) it was found that the values of the scales chocolate desire and emotional eating depend on the frequency of chocolate consumption.

The Polish version of ACQ is characterized by high validity and reliability of all subscales. This proves the questionnaire to be a valid and reliable research tool.

Cooper KA, Donovan JL, Waterhouse AL. Williamson G. Cocoa and health: a decade of research. Br J Nutr. 2008; 99: 1–11.
Serafini M, Bugianesi R, Maiani G, Valtuena S, De-Santis S, Crozier A. Plasma oxidants from chocolate. Nature. 2003; 424: 1013.
Raport „Branża cukiernicza” Agencja Dziennikarska, 2004.
Macht M, Dettmer D. Everyday mood and emotions after eating a chocolate bar or an apple. Appetite. 2006; 46: 332–336.
Wansik B, Cheney MM, Chan N. Exploring comfort food preferences across age and gender. Physiology and Behavior. 2003; 79: 739–747.
Smit HJ, Gaffan EA, Rogers PJ. Methylxanthines are the psycho-pharmacologically active constituents of chocolate. Psychopharmacology. 2004; 176: 412–419.
Macht M, Gerer J, Ellgring H. Emotions in overweight and normal- -weight women immediately after eating foods differing in energy. Physiology and Behavior. 2003; 80: 367–374.
Benton D, Greenfield K, Morgan M. The development of the attitudes to chocolate questionnaire. Personality and Individual Differences. 1998; 24: 513–520.
Muller J, Dettmer D, Macht M. The Attitudes to Chocolate Questionnaire: psychometric properties and relationship to dimensions of eating. Appetite. 2008; 50: 499–505.
American Educational Research Association, American Psychological Zssociation, National Council on Measurement In Education. Standardy dla testow stosowanych w psychologii i pedagogice. Gdańskie Wydawnictwo Psychologiczne; 2007.
Brzezinski J. Metodologia badań psychologicznych. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN, 2011.
Massey A, Hill AJ. Dieting and food craving. A descriptive, quasi- -prospective study. Appetite. 2012; 58(3): 781–785.
Hill AJ. The psychology of food craving. Proc Nutr Soc. 2007; 66(2): 277–285.
Cartwright F, Stritzke WGK. A multidimensional ambivalence model of chocolate craving. Construct validity and associations with chocolate consumption and disordered eating. Eating Behaviors. 2008; 9: 1–12.
Hormes JM, Timko CA. All cravings are not created equal. Correlates of menstrual versus non-cyclic chocolate craving. Appetite. 2011; 57: 1–5.
Desment PMA, Schifferstein HNJ. Sources of positive and negative emotions in food experience. Appetite. 2008; 50: 290–301.
Rozin P, Levine E, Stoess C. Chocolate craving and liking. Appetite. 1991; 17: 199–212.
Rozin P, Bauer R, Catanese D. Food and life, pleasure and worry, among American college students: gender differences and regional similarities. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 2003; 85: 132–141.
Canetti L, Bachar E, Berry EM. Food and emotion. Behavioral Processes. 2002; 60(2): 157–164.
Macht M, Roth S, Ellgring H. Chocolate eating in healthy men during experimentally induced sadness and joy. Appetite. 2002; 39: 147–158.
Oliver G, Wardle J, Gibson EL. Stress and food choice: A laboratory study.Psychosomatic Medicine. 2000; 62: 853–865.
Weinstein SE, Shide DJ, Rolls BJ. Changes in food intake in response to stress in men and women: Psychological factors. Appetite. 1997; 28, 7–18.
Macht M, Simons G. Emotions and eating in everyday life. Appetite. 2000; 35: 65–71.
Ogden J. The psychology of eating. Victoria: Carlton Blackwell Publishing Ltd; 2003.
Journals System - logo
Scroll to top