Gut-muscle axis. Physical activity as a modulator of gut microbiota status
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Uniwersytet Jagielloński Collegium Medicum, Wydział Nauk o Zdrowiu, Katedra Nauk Biomedycznych, Polska
Barbara Macura   

Uniwersytet Jagielloński Collegium Medicum, Wydział Nauk o Zdrowiu, Katedra Nauk Biomedycznych, Ul. Kopernika 7a, 31-034, Kraków, Polska
Introduction and objective:
It is well-known that many functions of the human body are modulated by gut microbiota. Currently, the biochemical cross-talk between the gut microbiota and muscles is a new field of research. The aim of this study is the presentation of gut microbiotamuscle interactions with particular consideration of the role of physical activity.

Review methods:
The literature search was performed using the PubMed and Google Scholar databases.

Brief description of the state of knowledge:
Available findings of research on animal and human models indicate the presence of two-way relationship between physical activity and the state of gut microbiota. Currently, various mechanisms of biochemical interactions between gut microbiota and muscle tissue are considered. Short chain fatty acids (SCFA) and other bioactive molecules produced by gut microbiota and various myokines e.g. interleukin 6 produced by muscle cells are suspected to be involved in cross-talk between gut microbiota and muscles. The level of these compounds is regulated mainly by diet and physical activity

Gut dysbiosis may contribute to the development of muscle dysfunction and, in turn, muscle dysfunction may facilitate development of gut dysbiosis. Appropriate diet and physical activity, as well as probiotics and prebiotics, may have beneficial prophylactic and therapeutic properties in muscle disorders. The recognition of accurate mechanisms of gut microbiota-muscle interactions is necessary to apply this knowledge in clinical practice.

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