Introduction and objective:
The tongue is considered to be a valuable source of information about patient’s general health, and it can also be an indicator of the presence or development of both local and general diseases. High frequency of occurrence and wide variety of the clinical presentations of the pathological tongue conditions result from its specific anatomical and histological structure. Multifactorial etiology of the tongue lesions and non-specificity of symptoms reported by the patients make it difficult to establish a correct medical diagnosis. The aim of the study is to present the most common tongue lesions, and to broaden knowledge of all medical specialists concerning the specific and non-specific tongue changes that can occur under the influence of local or general factors.

Brief description of the state of knowledge:
Among all tongue lesions, the most common are lingual atrophic conditions that often result from underlying systemic pathology. The subsequent group includes tongue disorders that are described as specific lesions of different etiology: congenital or developmental, infectious or neoplastic, or have no clearly defined etiology.

The ability to identify benign tongue conditions and pathological tongue lesions is the key in making the correct diagnosis and initiating the effective treatment without iatrogenic damage. Proper diagnosis and management of tongue conditions can reduce patient anxiety associated with the presence of tongue lesions, and significantly improve patient’s quality of life.

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