REVIEW PAPER
Restless legs syndrome and cardiovascular risk
 
More details
Hide details
1
Zakład Epidemiologii i Biostatystyki, Uniwersytet Medyczny w Łodzi
CORRESPONDING AUTHOR
Paulina Agata Paciej   

Zakład Epidemiologii i Biostatystyki, Uniwersytet Medyczny w Łodzi
 
Med Og Nauk Zdr. 2016;22(2):104–107
 
KEYWORDS
ABSTRACT
Introduction:
Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a neurological disorder characterized by presence of unpleasant sensations in the legs and, in consequence, irresistible urge to move them, especially at rest. Motor activity gives at least partial relief of the symptoms or their complete regression. It is estimated that the incidence of the disease ranges from 2.5 – 15.0%. RLS symptoms cause in most patients difficulties with falling asleep and maintaining the sleep, as a result leading to reduction of the quality of life. In 2001, there appeared the first report about relationship between RLS and cardiovascular diseases. Since that time, further research was conducted considering incidence of RLS and circulatory disorders, but they produced conflicting results.

Aim of the study:
The aim of the study was to review the results of epidemiological studies published in 2010–2015, where association between RLS, cardiovascular risk factors and circulatory disorders was analyzed. After searching PubMed base with following terms: ‘restless legs syndrome’ and ‘cardiovascular disease’, ‘hypertension’, ‘diabetes’, ‘obesity’, ‘dyslipidemia’, in total nineteen studies were included in the review

Description of the state of knowledge:
In the analyzed publications there is no clear answer to the questions whether RLS is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, and if the presence of cardiovascular diseases and their risk factors increase the likelihood of developing RLS.

Summary:
Further observational studies are needed, particularly of a prospective type, with special consideration of the severity of symptoms, their duration, and the incidence of cardiovascular diseases

 
REFERENCES (30)
1.
Ekbom K, Ulfberg J. Restless legs syndrome. J Intern Med. 2009; 266: 419–31.
 
2.
Allen RP, Picchietti D, Hening WA i wsp. Restless legs syndrome: diagnostic criteria, special considerations, and epidemiology. Sleep Med. 2003; 4(2): 101–119.
 
3.
Yeh P, Walters AS, Tsuang JW. Restless legs syndrome: a comprehensive overview on its epidemiology, risk factors, and treatment. Sleep Breath. 2012; 16: 987–1007.
 
4.
Ohayon MM, O’Hara R, Vitiello MV. Epidemiology of Restless Legs Syndrome: A Synthesis of the Literature. Sleep Med Rev. 2012; 16(4): 283–295.
 
5.
Earley CJ, Silber MH. Restless legs syndrome: understanding its consequences and the need for better treatment. Sleep Med Oct. 2010; 11(9): 807–815.
 
6.
Celle S, Roche F, Kerleroux J, Thomas-Anterion C i wsp. Prevalence and Clinical Correlates of Restless Legs Syndrome in an Elderly French Population: The Synapse Study. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2010; 65A(2): 167–173.
 
7.
Ulfberg J, Nystrom B, Carter N, Edling C. Prevalence of restless legs syndrome among men aged 18 to 64 years: An association with so-matic disease and neuropsychiatric symptoms. Mov Disord. 2001; 16: 1159–1163.
 
8.
Katsi V, Katsimichas T, Kallistratos MS. The Association of Restless Legs Syndrome with Hypertension and Cardiovascular Disease. Int Med J Exp Clin. 2014; 20: 654–659.
 
9.
Ferini-Strambi L, Walters AS, Sica D. The Relationship among Restless Legs Syndrome (Willis–Ekbom Disease), Hypertension, Cardiovascular Disease, and Cerebrovascular Disease. J Neurol. 2014; 261(6): 1051–1068.
 
10.
De Vito K, Li Y, Batool-Anwar S, Ning Y, Han J, Gao X. Prospective Study of Obesity, Hypertension, High Cholesterol and Risk of Restless Legs Syndrome. Mov Disord. 2014; 29(8): 1044–1052.
 
11.
Szentkirályi A, Völzke H, Hoffmann W, Happe S, Berger K. A time sequence analysis of the relationship between cardiovascular risk factors, vascular diseases and restless legs syndrome in the general population. J Sleep Res. 2013; 22: 434–442.
 
12.
Szentkirályi A, Völzke H, Hoffmann W, Trenkwalder C, Berger K. Multimorbidity and the risk of restless legs syndrome in 2 prospective cohort studies. Neu. 2014; 82(22): 2026–2033.
 
13.
Van Den Eeden SK, Albers KB, Davidson JE i wsp. Risk of cardiovascular disease associated with a restless legs syndrome diagnosis in a retrospective cohort study from Kaiser Permanente Northern California. SLEEP. 2015; 38(7): 1009–1015.
 
14.
Winter AC, Berger K, Glynn RJ i wsp. Vascular Risk Factors, Cardiovascular Disease and Restless Legs Syndrome in Men. Am J Med. 2013; 126(3): 228–235.
 
15.
Winter AC, Schürks M, Glynn RJ. Vascular Risk Factors, Cardiovascular Disease and Restless Legs Syndrome in Women. Am J Med. 2013; 126(3): 220–227.
 
16.
Giannini G, Zanigni S, Melotti R i wsp. Association between restless legs syndrome and hypertension: a preliminary population-based study in South Tyrol, Italy. Eur J Neurol. 2014; 21: 72–78.
 
17.
Shi Y, Yu H, Ding D, Yu P, Wu D, Hong Z. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Restless Legs Syndrome among Chinese Adults in a Rural Community of Shanghai in China. PLoS ONE. 2015; 10(3).
 
18.
Cosentino FII, Arico› D, Lanuzza B i wsp. Absence of cardiovascular disease risk factors in restless legs syndrome. Acta Neurol Scand. 2012; 125: 319–325.
 
19.
Benediktsdottir B, Janson C, Lindberg E i wsp. Prevalence of restless legs syndrome among adults in Iceland and Sweden: Lung function, comorbidity, ferritin, biomarkers and quality of life. Sleep Med. 2010; 11(10): 1043–1048.
 
20.
Taşdemir M, Erdoğan H, Börü UT, Dilaver E, Kumaş A. Epidemiology of restless legs syndrome in Turkish adults on the western Black Sea coast of Turkey: A door-to-door study in a rural area. Sleep Med. 2010; 11: 82–86.
 
21.
Zobeiri M, Shokoohi A. Restless Leg Syndrome in Diabetics Compared with Normal Controls. Sleep Disord. 2014; Article ID: 871751.
 
22.
Wali SO, Abaalkhail B. Prevalence of Restless Legs Syndrome and Associated Risk Factors among Middle-Aged Saudi Population. Ann Thorac Med. 2015; 10(3): 193–198.
 
23.
Juuti AK, Läärä E, Rajala U i wsp. Prevalence and associated factors of restless legs in a 57-year-old urban population in northern Finland. Acta Neurol Scand. 2010; 122: 63–69.
 
24.
Batool-Anwar S, Malhorta A, Forman J i wsp. Restless legs syndrome and hypertension in middle-age women. Hypertension. 2011; 58(5): 791–796.
 
25.
Mirza M, Shen WK, Sofi A i wsp. Frequent Periodic Leg Movement During Sleep Is Associated With Left Ventricular Hypertrophy and Adverse Cardiovascular Outcomes. J Am Soc Echocardiogr. 2013; 26(7): 783–790.
 
26.
Li Y, Walters AS, Chiuve SE. Prospective Study of Restless Legs Syn¬drome and Coronary Heart Disease Among Women. Circulation. 2012; 126(14): 1689–1694.
 
27.
Walters AS, Moussouttas M, Siddiqui F. Prevalence of Stroke in Restless Legs Syndrome: Initial Results Point to the Need for More Sophisticated Studies. Open Neurol J. 2010; 4: 73–77.
 
28.
Alessandria M, Provini F. Periodic Limb Movements during Sleep: A New Sleep-Related Cardiovascular Risk Factor? Front Neurol. 2013; 4: 116.
 
29.
Moller C, Wetter TC, Koster J, Stiasny-Kolster K. Differential diagnosis of unpleasant sensations in the legs: prevalence of restless legs syndrome in a primary care population. Sleep Med. 2010; 11: 161–166.
 
30.
Li Y, Wang W, Winkelman JW i wsp. Prospective Study of Restless Legs Syndrome and Mortality among Men. Neurology. 2013; 81(1): 52–59.
 
eISSN:2084-4905
ISSN:2083-4543