Introduction and objective:
Cognitive functions are the precondition of proper functioning of an organism in terms of reception and processing of stimuli coming from the environment. Proper nutrition is a basis of prevention of cognitive impairment. The aim of the presented study was to describe the effect of nutrition on cognitive functions, and the related cognitive disorders.

Review methods:
Scientific publications found in databases, e.g. PubMed and scientific journals were analyzed, including meta-analyses, randomized trials, and systematic reviews, concerning the scope of medical and nutritional problems, excluding case reports.

Abbreviated description of the state of knowledge:
Signs and symptoms of cognitive disorder include decrease in productivity and attention deficit. Most often these symptoms are transient and disappear with cessation of the underlying cause, but they may also be the sign of development of a neurodegenerative disease. Due to the fact that the development of cognitive disorders is multicausal, it is impossible to achieve its entire elimination or inhibition. The factors which we can modify are: body weight, nutrition, gut microbiota quality and dietary supplements. A suitable diet rich in vitamin B, antioxidants, probiotics and unsaturated fatty acids may temporarily improve cognitive functions and prevent neurodegenerative diseases which today remain incurable. Using probiotic supplements can be taken into consideration as a promising complementary therapy; however, it requires further research.

Complex care of balanced diet and health promoting life mode is the key to maintaining cognitive functions. The efficiency in prevention of dementia is particularly high before the occurrence of the initial symptoms of the disease. Proper diet may inhibit the progress of neurodegenerative diseases; however, it has no effect on their regression

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