Adipose tissue – the structure and its functions, with particular emphasis on the characteristics of selected adipokines and their effects on the organism
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Zakład Toksykologii i Ochrony Zdrowia w Środowisku Pracy, Katedra Toksykologii i Uzależnień Wydział Zdrowia Publicznego w Bytomiu, Śląski Uniwersytet Medyczny, Polska
Oddział Chirurgii Ogólnej i Onkologicznej, Szpital Miejski w Siemianowicach Śląskich, Polska
Zakład Farmakologii, Instytut Medycyny, Uniwersytet Opolski, Polska
Marta Buczkowska   

Zakład Toksykologii i Ochrony Zdrowia w Środowisku Pracy Katedra Toksykologii i Uzależnień Wydział Zdrowia Publicznego w Bytomiu Śląski Uniwersytet Medyczny, Polska
Introduction and Objective:
The world epidemic of obesity has contributed to the development of research aimed at a comprehensive recognition of the structure and understanding of the processes taking place in adipose tissue, the excess of which is the main marker of this disease. At present, it is known that due to the production of adipokines, adipose tissue may be among the causes of obesity-related disorders. The objective of the study is presentation of the structure and function of adipose tissue, with particular consideration of its hormonal activity.

Brief description of the state of knowledge:
Adipokines produced by adipose tissue, not only have a local effect (autocrine and paracrine), but can also target distant organs (endocrine effect). They regulate cellular metabolism, angiogenesis, blood pressure, immunological and inflammatory processes, maintain energy balance or are responsible for appetite and fertility processes. Currently, several hundred adipokines have been identified, diverse with respect to both their structure and function. In the presented review, selected adipokines of special importance for the body are described.

Adipose tissue exerts an effect on the functioning of the whole organism, and may play a fundamental role in the development of many diseases, especially those which are metabolic. Considering the broad spectrum of effects of adipokines, it is particularly important to comprehensively recognize the impact of these compounds on the vital processes, which, in the future, may enable their clinical application in the diagnostics and pharmacotherapy of diseases.

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