Introduction and Objective:
Biologically active peptides (BAP) are fragments of amino acid sequences of food proteins that become active upon release. The precursors of these peptides can be milk proteins, mainly casein and whey protein fractions. The aim of this study is to discuss the possibilities of synthesis and properties of protein-derived biologically active peptides, as factors preventing diet-related diseases.

Current state of knowledge:
Health-promoting BAP activity has been determined to-date in in vitro studies, and several of these beneficial properties have been confirmed in in vivostudies. The majority of these peptides regulate immunological, gastrointestinal, hormonal and neurological responses, thereby playing a vital role in the prevention of cancer, osteoporosis, hypertension and other diseases. Sources of BAP include bioproducts, food products, or fractions enriched with active ingredients or purified peptides. In the human circulatory and digestive systems, only a few analyzed variants of BAP have been found, which were mainly derived from bovine milk casein. A significant variety of naturally formed BAP have been identified in fermented dairy products, such as yoghurt, kefir and cheese. Their composition and properties depend, to a large extent, on the types of microorganisms used, and the technological procedures employed.

This review of the current knowledge of milk protein-derived bioactive peptides indicates many relationships and contributes to the promotion of the nutritional value of dairy products containing various health-promoting ingredients, including BAP. The issue that should be analyzed is the assessment of the appropriate concentration of BAP, their bioavailability, ensuring activity in vivo.

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