Poczucie własnej skuteczności w kontekście radzenia sobie w sytuacjach trudnych kobiet i mężczyzn z nabytą niepełnosprawnością ruchową
More details
Hide details
Zakład Socjopedagogiki Specjalnej, Instytut Pedagogiki, Uniwersytet Marii Curie-Skłodowskiej w Lublinie
Med Og Nauk Zdr. 2011;17(3):127–134
The specifi city of reaction to acquired disability is shaped by various variables: socio-demographic, personality- related, and social. The category of gender is also plays an important role. Diff erent planes of socialization fi nd their refl ection in varying reactions to diffi cult situations, including the sustaining of permanent limitations. The methods of coping with diffi culties resulting from disability, which are preferred by males and females, are subjected to the eff ect of many factors, including those related to personality. Among those factors is the sense of self- effi cacy approached as a personal resource, which is present at all stages of coping with problems.

Analysis of the relationship between the generalized sense of self-efficacy and the styles and strategies of coping in diffi cult situations preferred by males and females with acquired motor disability.

Material and Methods:
The study covered 143 disabled with acquired, permanent impairments concerning the motor organ – 70 females and 73 males. The following research instruments were applied: Generalized Self-Effi cacy Scale (GSES) by R. Schwarzer and M. Jerusalem adapted by Z. Juczyńskiego, and the Coping Orientations to Problems Experienced (COPE) by C. S. Carvera, M. F. Scheier and J. K. Weintraub, Polish adaptation by S. Piątek and K. Wrześniewski.

The variable of gender diversifi es the intensity of the variables examined. Males are characterized by a higher level of self-effi cacy, and to a considerably higher degree prefer the task-oriented style of coping, compared to females, who show a higher tendency towards seeking social support while struggling with problems. Among males and females examined there occurred signifi cant relationships between the adopted variables; a positive correlation was noted, among other things, with respect to the sense of self-effi cacy, as well as task-oriented styles and strategies of coping with diffi culties.

The category of gender plays an important role in the adoption of specifi ed copping methods, frequency of their use and diversifi cation of the scope of the strategies preferred. The structure of relationships between the sense of self-efficacy, and the styles and strategies of coping, also becomes specifi c according to the gender of the disabled individual who undertakes eff orts to overcome diffi culties resulting from permanent limitations. Irrespective of gender, the variability in the sense of self-effi cacy may, to a larger extent, be explained by the adopted styles and strategies of coping, rather than vice versa.

Crisp R. Gender diff erences in the perceptions of psychosocial experiences reported by persons with disabilities. Aust Occup Th er J 2002;49(2):188-199.
Nosek MA, Hughes RB. Psychosocial issues of women with physical disabilities: Th e continuing gender debate. Rehabil Couns Bull 2003;46(4):224-233.
Barnes C, Mercer G. Niepełnosprawność. Wydawnictwo Sic. Warszawa 2008.
Fernandez C, Lopez-Justicia MD, Polo MT. Visible and non visible disability: Diff erences in self-concept. Estudios de Psicologia 2007;28(3):359-368.
Olney MF, Kuper EV. Th e situation of women with developmental disabilities: Implications for practitioners in supported employment. J App Rehabil Counsel 1998;29(1):3-8.
Rintala DH, Hart KA, Fuhrer MJ. Perceived stress in individuals with spinal cord injury. W: Krotoski DM, Nosek MA, Turk MA, red. Women with disability: Achieving and maintaining health and well-being. Baltimore: Brookes; 1996:223-242.
Schwartz CE, Foley FW, Rao SM, Bernardin LJ, Lee H, Genderson MW. Stress and course of disease in multiple sclerosis. Behav Med 1999; 25(2):110-116.
Heszen I, Sęk H. Psychologia zdrowia. Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN. Warszawa; 2007: pp. 150.
Rosario M, Shinn M, Morch H, Huckabee CB. Gender differences in coping and social supports: Testing socialization and role constraint theories. J Commun Psychol 1988;16(1):55-69.
Tamres LK, Janicki D, Helgeson VS. Sex diff erences in coping behavior: A meta-analytic review and a examination of relative coping. Pers Soc Psychol 2002;8(1):2-30.
Westbrook MT. How social expectations diff er for women and men who become disabled. Aust Disabil Rev 1997;97(1):25-41.
Taub DE, McLorg PA, Fanfl ik PL. Stigma management strategies among women with physical disabilities: contrasting approaches of downplaying or claiming a disability status. Deviant Behavior 2004;25(1):169- 190.
Hughes RB, Taylor HB, Robinson-Whelen S, Nosek MA. Stress and women with physical disabilities: Identifying correlates. Women’s Health Issues 2005;15(1):14-20.
Oleś P. Wprowadzenie do psychologii osobowości. SCHOLAR. Warszawa; 2003.
Schwarzer R, Taubert S. Radzenie sobie ze stresem. Wymiary i procesy. Promocja Zdrowia. Nauki Społeczne i Medycyna 1999;6:72-92.
Heppner PP, Lee D. Problem-solving appraisal and psychological adjustment. W: Snyder CR, Lopez SJ, red. Handbook of positive psychology. New York: Oxford University Press; 2005:288-298.
Juczyński Z, Narzędzia pomiaru w promocji i psychologii zdrowia. PTP. Warszawa; 2001.
Airlie J, Baker GA, Smith SJ, Young CA. Measuring the impact of multiple sclerosis on psychosocial functioning: the development of a new self-effi cacy scale. Clin Rehabil 2001;15(3):259-265.
Wrzesińska MA, Opuchlik K, Kocur J. Ocena umiejscowienia kontroli zdrowia oraz poziomu poczucia własnej skuteczności i optymizmu u chorych na stwardnienie rozsiane. Postępy Psychiatr Neurol 2008;17(4):313-318.
Maddux JE. Self-effi cacy: Th e power of believing you can. W: Snyder CR, Lopez SJ, red. Handbook of positive psychology. New York: Oxford University Press; 2005:277-287.
Miller Smedema S, Bakken-Gillen SK, Dalton J. Psychosocial adaptation to chronic illness and disability: Models and measurement. W: Chan F, da Silva Cardoso E, Chronister JA, red. Understanding psychosocial adjustment to chronic illness and disability. A handbook for evidence – based practitioners in rehabilitation. New York: Springer Publishing Company; 2009:51-73.
Riazi A, Th omson AJ, Hobart JC. Self-effi cacy predict self-reported health status in multiple sclerosis. Multiple Sclerosis 2004;10(1):61- 66.
Motl RW, McAuley E, Snook EM, Gliottoni RC. Physical activity and quality of life in multiple sclerosis: Intermediary roles of disability, fatique, mood, pain, self-effi cacy and social support. Psychol Health Med 2009;14(1):111-124.
Hampton N. Subjective well-being among people with spinal cord injuries: Th e role of self-efficacy, perceived social control and perceived health. Rehabil Counsel 2004;48(1):31-37.
Lowe R, Cockshott Z, Greenwood R, Kirwan JR, Almeida C, Richards P, Hewlett S. Self-effi cacy as an appraisal that moderates the copingemotion relationship: Associations among people with rheumatoid arthritis. Psychol Health 2008;23(2):155-174.
Boehmer S. Relationships between felt age and perceived disability, satisfaction with recovery, self-effi cacy beliefs and coping strategies. J Health Psychol 2007;12(6):895-906.
Dixon G, Th ornton E, Young C. Perceptions of self-efficacy and rehabilitation among neurologically disabled adults. Clin Rehabil 2007;21(2):230-240.
Matud MP. Gender diff erences in stress and coping styles. Pers Individ Dif 2004;37(7):1401-1415.
Fraser C, Polito SA. Comparative study of self-efficacy in men and women with multiple sclerosis. J Neurosci Nurs 2007;39(1):102-106.
Dwyer AL, Cummings AL. Stress, self-efficacy, social support and coping strategies in university students. Can J Couns 2001;35(3):208- 220.
Beckham J, Burker E. Self-efficacy and adjustment in cancer patients: a preliminary report. Behav Med 1997;23(1):138-142.
Jackson T, Lezzi T, Gunderson J, Nagasaka T, Fritch A. Gender differences in pain perception: Th e mediating role of self-efficacy beliefs. Sex Roles 2002;47(11-12):561-568.