Grape vinegars – characteristics, properties and safety of use
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Zakład Żywienia Człowieka i Metabolomiki, Pomorski Uniwersytet Medyczny, Szczecin, Polska
Justyna Antoniewicz   

Zakład Żywienia Człowieka i Metabolomiki, Pomorski Uniwersytet Medyczny, Broniewskiego 24, 71 - 460, Szczecin, Polska
Introduction and objective:
Vinegar is a fermented product that is widespread worldwide. It is used primarily as a seasoning to enrich the taste of dishes and to solidify food in the form of marinades. Vinegar may be the source of many compounds exerting a positive effect on the human body. The aim of the study is to present various types of vinegars produced from grape fruit, as well as their health properties.

Review methods:
A systematic review of research was conducted using electronic databases such as PubMed, Elsevier and Google Scholar.

Brief description of the state of knowledge:
Fruit vinegars are a rich source of vitamins, minerals, organic acids and polyphenolic compounds. The content of these compounds makes vinegars a product with a positive influence on the human organism. Due to the high content of antioxidant compounds, vinegars can be used as adjuncts in the treatment of free radical diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases. The composition and quality of the final product depends on the production method and the microorganisms involved in the fermentation process. Grape vinegars have a beneficial effect on carbohydrate metabolism, reducing the level of fasting glucose and haemoglobin A1c in blood, as well as postprandial glycaemia. Research show that grape vinegars also have a positive effect on the lipid profile by reducing the concentration of total cholesterol and its LDL fraction.

Grape vinegars are a rich source of many bioactive compounds, therefore, they can be used in the treatment of certain diseases, mainly those related to free radicals. The content of individual compounds in grape vinegars is highly diversified, and their composition is influenced both by the vinegar production process and the grape variety used.

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