Modern techniques in organ transplantation
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Uniwersytet Medyczny w Lublinie
Klinika Neurologii Dziecięcej III Katedry Pediatrii, Uniwersytet Medyczny w Lublinie
Klinika Endokrynologii i Diabetologii Dziecięcej III Katedra Pediatrii Uniwersytet Medyczny w Lublinie
Maria Golebiowska   

Uniwersytet Medyczny w Lublinie, Konopnica 96 J, 21-030 Konopnica, Polska
Med Og Nauk Zdr. 2017;23(4):230–234
Organ transplantation is one of the most intensively developing fields of medicine, the blooming period of which began at the turn of the century with the first successful organ transplants, giving patients hope for a second chance and health. Currently, after the discovery of the surgical and immunological aspects of transplantation, the most pressing problem is the lack of organs. Scientists are also facing new challenges with the introduction of face transplantation procedures, transplantation in the newborn, and the planned procedure for head transplant. The purpose of the study is to present the latest technical challenges of transplantation: organ culture and 3D bioprinting, head transplantation, and xenotransplantation. Numerous studies show remarkable progress in the synthesis of iPSC organs – the first attempts of regeneration techniques of the heart, liver, bones and cornea mark the beginning of regenerative medicine and a new era in transplantation, where synthetic organs replace the need for human donors. The 3D bioprinting technique seems necessary in the planning of the above-mentioned achievements, which will enable a harmonious reconstruction of anatomical and histological structures and dependencies. Intensive research is also being carried out from the aspect of head graft, where the most important dilemmas of surgery are, e.g. deep hypothermia, anastomosis of the spinal cord, and subsequent damage to the spinothalamic tract. Additionally, numerous ethical and moral arguments related to the surgery are also the cause of disquiet. Although, in the last two decades transplantation has been experiencing tremendous technical progress, there are still many technical and ethical challenges related with these procedures.

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