Anaerobic bacteria as a challenge for modern medical microbiological diagnostics
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Katedra i Zakład Mikrobiologii Lekarskiej, Warszawski Uniwersytet Medyczny, Polska
Anna Majewska   

Katedra i Zakład Mikrobiologii Lekarskiej, Warszawski Uniwersytet Medyczny, ul. Chałubińskiego 5, 02-004, Warszawa, Polska
Introduction and objective:
Anaerobic bacteria are a component of the human microbiome. Many of them are characterized by low pathogenicity, but some may cause opportunistic and polybacterial infections. Some species are absolutely pathogenic. The aim of the study is to show the problems that may appear at any stage of microbiological testing with the participation of anaerobic bacteria.

State of knowledge:
Due to technical difficulties and the cost of the test, microbiological diagnostics of anaerobic bacteria is usually carried out in only a few microbial laboratories. The skipping of diagnoses of these bacteria in routine microbiological testing results in an underestimation of their involvement in the etiology of infections, and makes the monitoring of antibiotic resistance impossible. Among anaerobes strains resistant to clindamycin, beta-lactam antibiotics combined with a beta-lactamase inhibitor and carbapenems, are especially often isolated. The problem of resistance mainly concerns anaerobic Gram-negative rods.

The appropriate procedure, from the stage of sample qualification to the interpretation of the obtained outcome, exerts an effect on the reliability of the result, and significantly reduces the cost associated with the isolation and identification of anaerobic bacteria. Microbiological determination of drug susceptibility of anaerobic bacteria also allows assessment of resistance trends, establishing the principles of empirical therapy, and the creation of appropriate antibiotic policy in the hospital.

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