Body posture and energetic predisposition of the intellectually disabled
More details
Hide details
Katedra Biomedycznych Podstaw Wychowania Fizycznego i Sportu, Uniwersytet Rzeszowski
Med Og Nauk Zdr. 2011;17(2):57–63
The shaping of body posture is associated with the development of the osteoligament and muscular systems, muscles innervations together with the development of the balance organs and the prioprioceptive sense. Mentally disabled children clearly diff er with respect to body posture from their able-bodied contemporaries. The more severe the disability, the greater deformities and defl ections from the adequate body posture. The maintenance of an adequate body posture requires the balance balanced fl exes on muscles working in opposition muscular tensions acting antithetically, and therefore, specifi ed energetic capabilities.

The objective of the study is to show body posture defects, anaerobic failure, and the relationship between body posture and energetic predispositions of children disabled mentally to a moderate and considerable degree.

Material and Methods:
The study covered 201 severely mentally disabled children aged 12 - 18 from south-eastern Poland. Body posture was evaluated in the frontal and saggital planes, and position of the lower extremities. The following defects of the lower extremities were assessed: genu valgum (knocked knees) and genu varum (bow legs), flattened feet, flat feet and talipes planovarus. The measurement was also performed of body weight, and long jump without approach run. The results obtained served to calculate the maximum anaerobic power (MAP) of the disabled, and were compared with the results of the intellectually disabled. Measurement data were subjected to three-factor analysis of variance, where the independent variables were: gender, degree of disability, occurrence of posture defects or posture categories, and the dependent variable was the MAP index. Null hypotheses were verifi ed by means of F Snedecor’s test, the p values p<0.05 were considered statistically signifi cant.

The results obtained show that in the majority of the children examined, posture defects were observed in the spine region rather than in the lower extremities. Anaerobic power, irrespective of posture defects, was higher in children who were disabled to a moderate degree.

Energetic predispositions on the anaerobic background among severely disabled children are, on average, three times lower than those who are intellectually able. The degree of mental disability and scoliosis determine anaerobic power in severely mentally disabled patients.

Malinowski A. Norma biologiczna a rozwój somatyczny człowieka. IWZZ, Warszawa, 1987.
Momola I. Rozwój somatyczny, postawa ciała i zdolności motoryczne dziewcząt upośledzonych umysłowo. Uniwersytet Rzeszowski, Rzeszów 2007;15:89,94.
Karski T. Przykurcze i zaburzenia rośnięcia w obrębie biodra i miednicy przyczyną tzw. skolioz idiopatycznych. Rozważania biomechaniczne. Chirurgia Narządu Ruchu i Ortopedia Polska 1997;1:143-150.
Asazuma TN, Suzuki N, Hirabayashi K. Analysis of human dynamic posture in normal and scoliotic patients. In: Surface topography and spinal deformity. Surface topography and spinal deformity. Proceeding of the 3rd international symposium; 1984 September 27-28; Oxford, New York.
Lewit K. Leczenie manualne zaburzeń czynności narządu ruchu. PZWL, Warszawa; 1984.
Perrot JW. Structural and functional anatomy. Arnold, London; 1977.
Zagrobelny Z, Woźniewski M. Biomechanika kliniczna. AWF, Wrocław 1999:97-103.
Steindler A. Kinesiology of the human body under normal and pathologicae condition. Charlec C. Th omas, Springfi eld; 1977.
Hagberg B, Kyllerman M. Epidemiology of mental retardation a Swedish survey. Brain Deviation 1983;5:441-449.
Haley SM. Postural reactions in infants with Down syndrome. Phys Th er 1986;66:17-22.
Fernhall B. Physical fi tness and exercise training of individuals with mental retadation. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1993;4:442-450.
Dykens EM, Cohen DJ. Eff ects of special olympics international on social competence in persons with mental retardation. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 1996;2:223-229.
McEwen B. An evaluation of the need of the long stay psychiatric patient for organised exercise. Aust J Physiother 1983;6:202 208.
Chaiwanichsiri D, Sanguanrungsirikul S, Suwannakul W. Poor physical fi tness of adolescents with mental retardation at Rajanukul School. Bangkok. J Med Assoc Th ai 2000;11:1387-1392.
Bat-Haee MA. A longitudinal study of active treatment of adaptive skills of individuals with profound mental retardation. Psychol Rep 2001;2:345-354.
Poortmans J. Protein and amino acid utilization during exercise. 3rd International Course on Physiol. Biochem. of Exercise and Training. Athens; 1986.
Cheetham MC, Wiliams C. Blood ph and blood lactate concentration following maximal treadmill sprinting in man. J Physio 1985;361:79.
Skinner JS, O’Conner J, Kohrt W, Hoff man D. Aerobic and anaerobic characteristicks of highly – trained athletes from selected sports. IIIrd International Cours on Physiol. Biochem. of Exercise and Training. Athens; 1986.
Chasiotis D, Edstrom L, Sahlin K, Sjoholm H. Activation of glycogen phosphorylose by electrical stimulation of isolated fast twitch and slow twitch muscles from rat. Acta Physiol Scand 1985;123:43.
Jacobs I. Lactate concentration aft er short, maximal exercise at various glycogen levels. Acta Physiol Scand 1981;3:465.
Klimek A. Tolerancja wysiłkowa i wydolność fizyczna dzieci i młodzieży w: wybrane zagadnienia tolerancji wysiłku fizycznego. Klukowski K, Klimek A, Jethon Z. Medicina Sportva. Krakow 2011:19.
Czarkowska-Pączek B, Gabryś T. Wydolność fizyczna organizmu W: Zarys fizjologii wysiłku fizycznego. Red. Czarkowska Pączek B, Przybylski J. 2006:23-27.
Szopa J, Mleczko E, Żak S. Podstawy antropomotoryki. PWN, Warszawa– Krakow, 1996:35-41.
Januszewski J. Zmienność ontogenetyczna maksymalnej pracy anaerobowej – wyniki badań porownawczych. Antropomotoryka 1992;8:85.
Kasperczyk T. Metody oceny postawy ciała. AWF, Krakow, 1983.
Skowroński W, Horvat M, Nocera J, Roswal G, Croce R. Eurofi t Special:.2009:26(1).
Toporowski PD, Ellis NR. Eff ects of exercise on the physical fi tness, intelligence, and adaptive behavior of institutionalized mentally retarded adults. Appl Res Ment Retard 1984;5(3):329-337.
Ninot G, Maiano C. Long-term eff ects of athletics meet on the perceived competence of individuals with intellectual disabilities. Res Dev Disabil 2007;28(2):176-186.
O’Brien CC. Sport for children with intellectual disabilities. In: Sport medicine for specifi c ages and abilities. Ed. Maff uli N., Chan K. M., Macdonald R., Malina R. M., Parker R.M. Elsevier 2001: p. 447-453.
Laff erty ME. A stair-walking intervention strategy for children with Down’s Syndrome. J Bodywork Mov Th er 2005;9(1):65-74.
Bracegirdle H. Developing physical fi tness to promote mental health. In: Occupational Th erapy and Mental Health: Principles, Skills and Practice. Ed. Creek J. Elsevier 2002:p. 216-217.
Gabler-Halle D, Halle JW, Chung YB. Th e eff ects of aerobic exercise on psychological and behavioral variables of individuals with developmental disabilities: A critical review. Res Dev Disabil 1993;14(5):359-386.