Introduction and objective:
Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is becoming increasingly more prevalent in the general population. Its negative impact on the cardiovascular system and patients’ non-compliance to validated treatment options is a stimulus for research on novel OSAS therapies, including pharmacotherapy. The aim of the study was to discuss the possibility of using cannabinoids, such as cannabidiol (CBD), delta – 9 tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and their synthetic analogues, as a form of OSAS treatment.

Review methods:
The Pubmed database and Clinical Trial Registries were searched and reviewed for pilot studies, review articles, preclinical and clinical trials concerning using cannabinoids as an OSAS treatment option. The following key words and their combinations were used: „OSAS pharmacotherapy”, „cannabinoids”, and „sleep apnea”. The selected original articles were published between 2010 – 2021, and focused on the effect of dronabinol and synthetic THC analogue on qualitative and quantitative sleep quality parameters.

Abbreviated description of the state of knowledge:
Data concerning cannabinoids as an OSAS treatment option are scarce; however, show promising results confirming their effectiveness. Synthetic analogue of THC (dronabinol) was confirmed to reduce the number of apnoea episodes during sleep, improve the quality of sleep, and increase slowwave sleep time in clinical trials. During trials the drug was considered safe and well-tolerated.

Despite the fact that current results of research show that cannabinoids are effective in the treatment of OSAS, there is a substantial need for a multi-centre, long-term study on a large sample of patients, safety, long-term effects and dosing. The phenotype of patients who would benefit most by complying to such therapy should be determined.

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