REVIEW PAPER
Do older adults benefit from Pilates-based exercises? The application of Pilates as a geronto-prophylaxis – Indications, methodology and training effects
 
More details
Hide details
1
Uniwersytet Medyczny im. K. Marcinkowskiego w Poznaniu
CORRESPONDING AUTHOR
Monika Kowalczyk   

Uniwersytet Medyczny im. K. Marcinkowskiego w Poznaniu
 
Med Og Nauk Zdr. 2019;25(4):208–212
 
KEYWORDS
TOPICS
ABSTRACT
Introduction:
Physical activity is essential for seniors as it might improve quality of life and influence the physical and mental states. One of the serious physical disturbances in older adults concerns balance disorders and falls. Pilates is a method of exercises influencing the control of posture, and according to many authors is safe training recommended for seniors.

Objective:
The aim of this study is to assess the current state of knowledge related to Pilates used by older adults, and to assess the actual trend with seniors in mind. Focus is directed especially on latest publications on the effectiveness of Pilates performed by the elderly from the different aspects of human life. An attempt is made to standardize the of application of Pilates in seniors.

Results:
According to reviews, Pilates is effective in improving static and dynamic balance in older adults, that might influence the reduction of the risk of falls. Improvement was observed in Pilates groups in comparison to no intervention, and other forms of training. It was found that Pilates training also improved lower limb strength, hip and lower back flexibility, and cardiovascular endurance. A new trend was observed in the beneficial effects of Pilates exercises on the mental health of older adults.

Conclusions:
Due to the increasing need for maintaining optimal functioning in seniors, it is crucial to find a proper physical activity to apply in geronto-prophylaxis. Pilates influences beneficially on, i.a., balance and strengthening of muscles, as well as mental health. It can therefore be utilised in geronto-prophylaxis. In most publications, this training was performed 2–3 times a week with a single session lasting 40–60 minutes. However, the time of intervention varied from 4–16 weeks.

 
REFERENCES (31)
1.
Morris JS, Bradbury KE, Cross AJ, Gunter MJ, Murphy N. Physical activity, sedentary behaviour and colorectal cancer risk in the UK Biobank. Br J Cancer. 2018; 118(6): 920–929. doi:10.1038/bjc.2017.496.
 
2.
Lynch BM, Neilson HK, Friedenreich CM. Physical activity and breast cancer prevention. Recent Results Cancer Res. 2011; 186: 13–42. doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-04231-7_2.
 
3.
Lachman S, Boekholdt SM, Luben RN, Sharp SJ, Brage S, Khaw KT, Peters RJ, Wareham NJ. Impact of physical activity on the risk of cardiovascular disease in middle-aged and older adults: EPIC Norfolk prospective population study. Eur J Prev Cardiol. 2018; 25: 200–208. 10.1177/2047487317737628.
 
4.
Fielding RA, Guralnik JM, King AC, Pahor M, McDermott MM, Tudor-Locke C, Manini TM, Glynn NW, Marsh AP, Axtell RS, et al. Dose of physical activity, physical functioning and disability risk in mobility-limited older adults: Results from the LIFE study randomized trial. PLoS One 2017; 12: e0182155. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0182155.
 
5.
Galaviz KI, Narayan KMV, Lobelo F, Weber MB. Lifestyle and the Prevention of Type 2 Diabetes: A Status Report. Am J Lifestyle Med. 2015; 12(1): 4–20. doi:10.1177/1559827615619159.
 
6.
Bennett JA, Winters-Stone K. Motivating older adults to exercise: what works? Age Ageing 2011; 40: 148–149. doi: 10.1093/ageing/afq182.
 
7.
Taylor D. Physical activity is medicine for older adults. Postgrad Med J. 2014; 90: 26–32. doi: 10.1136/postgradmedj-2012-131366.
 
8.
Ostrowska B, Giemza CZ, Demczuk-Włodarczyk E, Adamska M. Evaluation of balance and gait in the elderly residents of nursing home. Physiotheraphy 2010; 18: 40–48. doi: 10.2478/v10109-010-0077-9.
 
9.
World Health Organization. Global Recommendations on Physical Activity for Health. http://www.who.int/dietphysica... et_olderadults/en/ (access: 10.07.2019).
 
10.
Sherrington C, Tiedemann A, Fairhall N, Close JC, Lord SR. Exercise to prevent falls in older adults: an updated meta-analysis and best practice recommendations. N S W Public Health Bull. 2011; 22: 78–83. doi: 10.1071/NB10056.
 
11.
Chodzko-Zajko WJ, Proctor DN, Fiatarone Singh MA, Minson CT, Nigg CR, Salem GJ, Skinner JS, Medicine ACoS. American College of Sports Medicine position stand. Exercise and physical activity for older adults. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2009; 41: 1510–1530.
 
12.
de Oliveira FC, de Almeida Fagundes A, Gorges B. Effects of Pila- tes method in elderly people: Systematic review of randomized con- trolled trials. J Bodyw Mov Ther. 2015; 19: 500–508. doi: 10.1016/j. jbmt.2015.03.003.
 
13.
de Oliveira LC, Gonçalves de Oliveira R, Pires-Oliveira DA. Effects of Pilates on muscle strength, postural balance and quality of life of older adults: a randomized, controlled, clinical trial. J Phys Ther Sci. 2015; 27: 871–876. doi: 10.1589/jpts.27.871.
 
14.
Latey P.The Pilates method: history and philosophy. Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies 2001; 5: 275–282. doi: 10.1054/jbmt.2001.0237.
 
15.
Muscolino JE, Cipriani S. Pilates and the “powerhouse”—I. Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies 2004; 8: 15–24. doi: 10.1016/ S1360 8592(03)00057-3.
 
16.
Wells C, Kolt GS, Bialocerkowski A. Defining Pilates exercise: a syste- matic review. Complement Ther Med. 2012; 20: 253–262. doi: 10.1016/j. ctim.2012.02.005.
 
17.
Di Lorenzo CE. Pilates: what is it? Should it be used in rehabilitation? Sports Health 2011; 3(4): 352–361. doi:10.1177/1941738111410285.
 
18.
Sorosky S, Stilp S, Akuthota V. Yoga and pilates in the management of low back pain. Curr Rev Musculoskelet Med. 2008; 1(1): 39–47. doi:10.1007/s12178-007-9004-1.
 
19.
Barker AL, Bird ML, Talevski J. Effect of pilates exercise for improving balance in older adults: a systematic review with meta-analysis. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2015; 96 (4): 715–723. doi: 10.1016/j.apmr.2014.11.021.
 
20.
Bullo V, Bergamin M, Gobbo S, Sieverdes JC, Zaccaria M, Neun- haeuserer D, Ermolao A. The effects of Pilates exercise training onphysical fitness and wellbeing in the elderly: A systematic review for future exercise prescription. Prev Med. 2015; 75: 1–11. doi: 10.1016/j. ypmed.2015.03.002.
 
21.
Engers PB, Rombaldi AJ, Portella EG, Silva MC. The effects of the Pilates method in the elderly: a systematic review. Rev Bras Reumatol Engl Ed. 2016; 56(4): 352–365. doi: 10.1016/j.rbre.2016.05.005.
 
22.
Moreno-Segura N, Igual-Camacho C, Ballester-Gil Y, Blasco-Igual MC, Blasco JM. The Effects of the Pilates Training Method on Balance and Falls of Older Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. J Aging Phys Act. 2018; 26: 327–344. doi: 10.1123/japa.2017-0078.
 
23.
Karimi MT, Solomonidis S. The relationship between parameters of static and dynamic stability tests. J Res Med Sci. 2011; 16(4): 530–535.
 
24.
Bueno de Souza RO, Marcon LF, Arruda ASF, Pontes Junior FL, Melo RC. Effects of Mat Pilates on Physical Functional Performance of Older Adults: A Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 2018; 97: 414–425. doi: 10.1097/PHM.0000000000000883.
 
25.
Bertoli J, Biduski GM, de la Rocha Freitas C. Six weeks of Mat Pilates training are enough to improve functional capacity in elderly women. J Bodyw Mov Ther. 2017; 21: 1003–1008. doi: 10.1016/j.jbmt.2016.12.001.
 
26.
Curi VS, Haas AN, Alves-Vilaça J, Fernandes HM. Effects of 16-weeks of Pilates on functional autonomy and life satisfaction among elderly women. J Bodyw Mov Ther. 2018; 22: 424–429.
 
27.
Curi VS, Vilaça J, Haas AN, Fernandes HM. Effects of 16-weeks of Pilates on health perception and sleep quality among elderly women. Arch Gerontol Geriatr. 2018; 74: 118–122.
 
28.
Aibar-Almazán A, Hita-Contreras F, Cruz-Díaz D, de la Torre-Cruz M, Jiménez-García JD, Martínez-Amat A. Effects of Pilates training on sleep quality, anxiety, depression and fatigue in postmenopausal women: A randomized controlled trial. Maturitas. 2019; 124: 62–67. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matu....
 
29.
Roh SY. Effect of a 16-week Pilates exercise program on the ego resiliency and depression in elderly women. J Exerc Rehabil. 2016; 12(5): 494–498. doi: 10.12965/jer.1632704.352.
 
30.
Roller M, Kachingwe A, Beling J, Ickes DM, Cabot A, Shrier G. Pilates Reformer exercises for fall risk reduction in older adults: A randomized controlled trial. J Bodyw Mov Ther. 2018; 22(4): 983–998. doi: 10.1016/j. jbmt.2017.09.004.
 
31.
Goedert A, Santos KB, Bento PCB, Rodacki ALF. The effect of pilates practice on balance in elderly: a systematic review. Rev Bras Ati Fis Saúde. 2018; 23: e0019. doi: 10.12820/rbafs.23e0019.
 
eISSN:2084-4905
ISSN:2083-4543