Anaphylaxis – diagnosis and treatment in medical practice
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Katedra i Klinika Chorób Wewnętrznych, Uniwersytet Medyczny w Lublinie
Katedra i Klinika Otolaryngologii Dziecięcej, Foniatrii i Audiologii, Uniwersytet Medyczny w Lublinie
Oddział Kardiologii, Wojewódzki Szpital Specjalistyczny w Lublinie
Andrzej Prystupa   

Katedra i Klinika Chorób Wewnętrznych, Uniwersytet Medyczny w Lublinie, ul. Staszica 16, 20-081 Lublin
Med Og Nauk Zdr. 2013;19(2):99–102
Anaphylaxis is an unexpected potentially life-threatening, rapid hyper-sensitivity. IgE class antibodies play a role in its pathomechanism. Although it may potentially triggered by any substance, the most frequent causes of IgE-dependent anaphylaxis are drugs, food products, insect venom, latex and vaccines. The symptoms of anaphylaxis considerably differ from the aspects of their onset, character and course. The first symptoms of anaphylaxis usually appear after several to several dozen minutes after the triggering stimulus. In the case of anaphylactic response to food consumed, anaphylaxis may occur even several hours after the meal. The symptoms of anaphylaxis develop rapidly, and the peak of their intensity is usually observed 30 minutes after the occurrence of the first symptoms. The symptoms of anaphylaxis may be mild, moderate or severe, and the course of anaphylactic reaction may be of one- or two-phase character. In the majority of patients, the first symptoms of anaphylactic reaction concern the skin and mucous membranes. Most often, generalized flushing is observed, skin itchiness, hives or oedema, which may be preceded by numbness of hands and feet, and reproductive organs. However, anaphylaxis may take a course without dermal symptoms, or only with the symptoms of cardiovascular collapse. The basic procedure is the prevention of further anaphylactic episodes by avoidance of hazardous antigens. Anaphylaxis may threaten the patient’s life. Adrenaline is the treatment of first choice. In addition, H1- and H2-blockers and corticosteroids are applied, although they are not effective in the initial phase of treatment.

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