REVIEW PAPER
‘Legal highs’ – an experiment at high risk, in terms of provisions of the new Act
 
More details
Hide details
1
Instytut Medycyny Wsi
 
Med Og Nauk Zdr. 2012;18(2):137–140
KEYWORDS
ABSTRACT
Introduction and objective of the study:
Legal highs, called ‘legal drugs’, contain in their composition psychoactive substances the production of which, sale and possession were not covered by the regulations of the previous Drug Addiction Control Act of 29 July 2005 in the matter of drug addiction prevention, Official Journal No. 179, Clause 1485, with later amendments. To-date, legal highs could be offered for sale in the form of collectible products without legal consequences.

Brief description the state of knowledge::
Legal highs include substances of natural or synthetic origin, mainly derivatives of piperazine, cathinione – alkaloid obtained from leaves of khat (Catha edulis) and ephedrine/caffeine. The phenomenon of underestimating the scale of health risk caused by using this type of preparations is alarming.

Summary:
Any initiatives aimed at improving the status of this situation are extremely important.

 
REFERENCES (25)
1.
Dziennik Ustaw z 2005 r. Nr 179 poz. 1485 – Ustawa z dnia 29 lipca 2005 r. o przeciwdziałaniu narkomanii – Dz. U. Nr 179, poz. 1485, z poźn. zm.
 
2.
Wood DM, Davies S, Puchniewicz M, Button J, Archer R, Ovaska H, i in. Recreational use of Mephedrone (4-methylmethcathinone, 4-MMC) with associated sympathomimetic toxicity. J Med Toxicol. 2010 Sep; 6(3): 327-30.
 
3.
Wood DM, Ramsey J, Dargan PI. Detecting novel and emerging recreational drugs on the ‘club scene’. Irish Psychiatrist. 2008; 9: 223–228.
 
4.
oZakrzewski T. „Dopalacze” w Internecie – marketing w służbie sprzedaży „środókow zastępczych” w Sieci. Serwis Informacyjny NARKOMANIA 2011.
 
5.
Dziennik Ustaw Nr. 105, Maj 24, 2011 – Ustawa z dnia 15 kwietnia 2011 r.o zmianie ustawy o przeciwdziałaniu narkomanii.
 
6.
Urząd Statystyczny w Lublinie Bezrobocie rejestrowane w województwie lubelskim w 2009r. http://www.stat.gov.pl/lublin/... HTML.htm (dostęp: 15.01.2012).
 
7.
Flaherty AW, Williams ZM, Rauch S, Cosgrove GR, Eskandar EN. Deep brain stimulation of the anterior internal capsule for treatment of medically refractory Tourette syndrome. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2005; 57 (Suppl. 4): E403.
 
8.
Davies S, Smith G, Button J, Ramsey J, Archer R, Holt DW, Dargan PI: Purchasing „legal highs” on the Internet-is there consistency in what you get? Ann Intern J Med. 2010; 103 (7): 489-493.
 
9.
Drug Monographs: analytical profiles of the piperazines [http://www. http://ltg.uk.net/pages/monogr...] (dostęp: 17.01.2012).
 
10.
Gee P, Richardson S, Woltersdorf W, Morre G. Toxic effects of BZPbased herbal party pills in humans: a prospective study in Christchurch, New Zealand. N Z Med J. 2005;118 (1227): U1784.
 
11.
Wood DM, Dargan PI, Button J, Holt DW, Ovaska H, Ramsey J, Jones AL. Collapse, reported seizure--and an unexpected pill. Lancet. 2007; 369 (9571): 1490.
 
12.
Elliott S, Smith C. Investigation of the first deaths in the United Kingdom involving the detection and quantitation of the piperazines BZP and 3-TFMP J Anal Toxicol. 2008; 32 (2): 172-7.
 
13.
Gee P, Jerram T, Bowie D. Multiorgan failure from 1-benzylpiperazyne ingestion-legal high or letal high? ClinToxi. 2010; 48 (3): 230-234. Balint EE, Falkay G, Balint GA. Khat – a controversial plant. Wien KlinWochenschr. 2009; 121 (19-20): 604-614.
 
14.
Odenwald M, Hinkel H, Schauer E, Schauer M, Elbert T, Neuner F, Rockstroh B. Use of khat and posttraumatic stress disorder as risk factors for psychotic symptoms: a study of Somali combatants. SocSci Med. 2009; 69 (7): 1040-1048.
 
15.
Drug Monographs: analytical profiles of methcathinones and related compounds. [http://www.http://ltg.uk.net/p.... asp] (dostęp: 17.01.2012).
 
16.
Archer RP. Fluoromethcathinone, a new substance of abuse. Forensic Sci Int. 2009; 185 (1-3): 10-20.
 
17.
Drug Monographs: analysis of spice and similar herbal smoking mixtures containing cannabinoid receptor agonists by high resolution mass spectrometry. http://www. http://ltg.uk.net/pages/monogr... -monographs.asp] (dostęp: 17.01.2012).
 
18.
Dresen S, Ferreiros N, Putz M, Westphal F, Zimmermann R, Auwarter V: Monitoring of herbal mixtures potentially containing synthetic cannabinoids as psychoactive compounds. J Mass Spectrom. 2010; 45 (10): 1186-1194.
 
19.
Urząd Statystyczny w Lublinie Szkolnictwo wyższe w roku akademickim 2009/2010 http://www.stat.gov.pl/lublin/... (dostęp: 20.01.2012).
 
20.
.Peeters M, Gunthorpe MJ, Strijbos PJ, Goldsmith P, Upton N, James MF. Effects of pan- and subtype-selective N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antagonists on cortical spreading depression in the rat: therapeutic potential for migraine. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2007; 321 (2): 564–72.
 
21.
Charles A, Flippen C, Romero Reyes M, Brennan KC. Memantine for prevention of migraine: a retrospective study of 60 cases. J Headache Pain. 2007; 8 (4): 248–50.
 
22.
Randall DC, Fleck NL, Shneerson JM, File SE. The cognitive-enhancing properties of modafinil are limited in non-sleep-deprived middle-aged volunteers. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2004; 77 (3): 547–55.
 
23.
Randall DC, Shneerson JM, File SE. Cognitive effects of modafinil in student volunteers may depend on IQ. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2005; 82 (1): 133–9.
 
24.
Minzenberg MJ, Carter CS. Modafinil: a review of neurochemical actions and effects on cognition. Neuropsychopharmacology 2007 [Epub ahead of print].
 
25.
Brunnauer A, Laux G, Geiger E, Soyka M, Moller HJ. Antidepressants and driving ability: results from a clinical study. J Clin Psychiatry. 2006; 67 (11): 1776–81.
 
eISSN:2084-4905
ISSN:2083-4543