REVIEW PAPER
Nutritional status disorders in cystic fibrosis – dietary recommendations and supplementation. A review
 
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Studenckie Koło Naukowe przy Zakładzie Dietetyki, Uniwersytet Medyczny we Wrocławiu
2
Zakład Dietetyki, Uniwersytet Medyczny we Wrocławiu
CORRESPONDING AUTHOR
Anna Mandecka   

Medical University, Parkowa Street 34, 51–616 Wroclaw, Polska
 
Med Og Nauk Zdr. 2017;23(2):115–121
KEYWORDS
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ABSTRACT
Introduction:
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a genetic and chronic disease affecting the functioning of many systems and organs in the body. From the respiratory system the disease is manifested by chronic cough, shortness of breath, bronchial obstruction, and also chronic infections with Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. Gastrointestinal disorders observed in CF include the exocrine pancreatic insufficiency, disorders of digestion and absorption, diarrhea and abdominal pain. In patients with CF, there also appear impaired liver function, fertility disorders, bone density disorders and deficiencies of vitamins and minerals. CF is also related with the occurrence of the nutritional status disturbances. As causes of the nutritional status disturbances, a number of factors may be distinguished which include: increased energy expenditure, exocrine pancreatic insufficiency, comorbidities, dietary mistakes or Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections. In more than a half of the patients with CF, malnutrition is noted, some of them are underweight, with improper body height; also, a reduced mid-arm circumference and reduced fat free mass are regularly observed. The shortages of fat-soluble vitamins are common. In supporting CF treatment the introduction of a high energy intake is recommended in the nutrition of the diet, as well high protein and high fat diets. In addition, dietary supplementation is recommended by the intake of proper doses of selected nutrients, such as: sodium, zinc, vitamins A, D, E and K. Considering the occurrence of pancreatic insufficiency, pancreatic enzymes supplementation is recommended. Dietary supplementation with probiotics should also be considered, and the use of high energy dietary supplements.

 
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