REVIEW PAPER
Does obesity increase the risk of stroke?
 
More details
Hide details
1
Student Scientific Circle, Clinic of Neurology, Medical University, Bialystok, Poland
2
Clinic of Neurology, Medical University, Bialystok, Poland
CORRESPONDING AUTHOR
Jacek Sajdak   

Student Scientific Circle, Clinic of Neurology, Medical University, Bialystok, Poland,
 
Med Og Nauk Zdr. 2019;25(4):204–207
KEYWORDS
TOPICS
ABSTRACT
Introduction:
According to the World Health Organization (WHO), about 15 million people worldwide suffer from stroke each year, which makes it the second leading cause of death and the leading cause of acquired disability in adults. Obesity is considered to be a great risk factor for stroke. It appears to play a role in the functional outcome and mortality. Obesity can be expressed by many indicators. Most commonly used is Body Mass Index (BMI)

Objective:
The aim of the study is to determine whether obesity increases the risk of stroke and present the recent state of knowledge about predictors for stroke incidence.

Brief description of the state of knowledge.:
It seems that BMI cannot be taken into consideration as an isolated risk factor for stroke. BMI limitations create a need for better obesity indicators. Recently, it was highlighted that abdominal obesity and its indicators might be a better predictor for stroke incidence compared to BMI. This seems reasonable if recent studies are taken into account in which it was found that abdominal fat has more metabolic activity than subcutaneous fat.

Conclusions:
The use of the alternative obesity measurements, such as waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), could help to correct limitations linked to the BMI, especially regarding patients with visceral type of obesity. All three obesity markers (BMI, WHR and WHtR) should be considered for use in every day practice.

 
REFERENCES (18)
1.
WHO. Global health risks: mortality and burden of disease attributable to selected major risks. Geneva: World Health Organization;2009.
 
2.
Bodenant M, Kuulasmaa K, Wagner A, et al. Measures of abdominal adiposity and the risk of stroke: the MOnica Risk, Genetics, Archiving and Monograph (MORGAM) study. Stroke. 2011; 42(10): 2872–2877.
 
3.
Rexrode KM, Hennekens CH, Willett WC, et al. A prospective study of body mass index, weight change, and risk of stroke in women. Jama. 1997; 277(19): 1539–1545.
 
4.
Kurth T, Gaziano JM, Berger K, et al. Body mass index and the risk of stroke in men. Arch Intern Med. 2002; 162(22): 2557–2562.
 
5.
Kurth T, Gaziano JM, Rexrode KM, et al. Prospective study of body mass index and risk of stroke in apparently healthy women. Circulation. 2005; 111(15): 1992–1998.
 
6.
Chen Z, Iona A, Parish S, et al. Adiposity and risk of ischaemic and haemorrhagic stroke in 0.5 million Chinese men and women: a prospective cohort study. Lancet Glob Health. 2018; 6(6): e630-e640.
 
7.
Zahn K, Linseisen J, Heier M, et al. Body fat distribution and risk of incident ischemic stroke in men and women aged 50 to 74 years from the general population. The KORA Augsburg cohort study. PLoS One. 2018; 13(2): e0191630.
 
8.
Suk SH, Sacco RL, Boden-Albala B, et al. Abdominal obesity and risk of ischemic stroke: the Northern Manhattan Stroke Study. Stroke. 2003; 34(7): 1586–1592.
 
9.
Ovbiagele B, Bath PM, Cotton D, et al. Obesity and recurrent vascular risk after a recent ischemic stroke. Stroke. 2011; 42(12): 3397–3402.
 
10.
Andersen KK, Olsen TS. The obesity paradox in stroke: lower mortality and lower risk of readmission for recurrent stroke in obese stroke patients. Int J Stroke. 2015; 10(1): 99–104.
 
11.
Dehlendorff C, Andersen KK, Olsen TS. Body mass index and death by stroke: no obesity paradox. JAMA Neurol. 2014; 71(8): 978–984.
 
12.
Katsnelson M, Rundek T. Obesity paradox and stroke: noticing the (fat) man behind the curtain. Stroke. Vol 42. United States. 2011: 3331–3332.
 
13.
Bornstein SR, Licinio J, Tauchnitz R, et al. Plasma leptin levels are increased in survivors of acute sepsis: associated loss of diurnal rhythm, in cortisol and leptin secretion. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1998; 83(1): 280–283
 
14.
Hu G, Tuomilehto J, Silventoinen K, et al. Body mass index, waist circumference, and waist-hip ratio on the risk of total and type-specific stroke. Arch Intern Med. 2007; 167(13): 1420–1427.
 
15.
Yu P, Pan Y, Zheng H, et al. Association of high waist-to-height ratio with functional outcomes in patients with acute ischemic stroke: A report from the ACROSS-China study. Medicine (Baltimore). 2017; 96(13): e6520.
 
16.
Chiquete E, Cantu-Brito C, Villarreal-Careaga J, et al. Obesity paradox and functional recovery in first-ever acute ischemic stroke survivors: the PREMIER study. Rev Neurol. 2010; 51(12): 705–713.
 
17.
Bembenek JP, Karlinski M, Niewada M, et al. Measurement of Nutritional Status Using Body Mass Index, Waist-to-Hip Ratio, and Waist Circumference to Predict Treatment Outcome in Females and Males with Acute First-Ever Ischemic Stroke. J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis. 2018; 27(1): 132–139.
 
18.
O’Donnell MJ, Xavier D, Liu L, et al. Risk factors for ischaemic and intracerebral haemorrhagic stroke in 22 countries (the INTERSTROKE study): a case-control study. Lancet 2010; 376(9735): 112–123.
 
eISSN:2084-4905
ISSN:2083-4543