PRACA POGLĄDOWA
Bioaktywne właściwości karnozyny
 
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Katedra i Zakład Biochemii i Biotechnologii Uniwersytet Medyczny w Lublinie
AUTOR DO KORESPONDENCJI
Ewa Syta   

Katedra i Zakład Biochemii i Biotechnologii\nUniwersytet Medyczny w Lublinie, ul. Kameralna5/60, 20-864 lublin, Polska
 
Med Og Nauk Zdr. 2018;24(2):96–100
SŁOWA KLUCZOWE
DZIEDZINY
STRESZCZENIE ARTYKUŁU
Karnozyna (β-alanylo-L-histydyna) to dipeptyd występujący endogennie w organizmie, którego poziom maleje wraz z wiekiem. Jest naturalną substancją neuroprotekcyjną, a jej obecność w ustroju zapobiega procesom senescencji – starzenia się komórek. Ponadto wykazuje ona właściwości antyoksydacyjne i chelatotwórcze w stosunku do jonów metali ciężkich. Karnozyna utrzymuje równowagę kwasowo-zasadową – buforuje tkanki pobudliwe, a także neutralizuje powstały w wyniku glikolizy beztlenowej kwas mlekowy. Wspomaga kurczliwość mięśnia sercowego poprzez regulację aktywności kanałów wapniowych w kardiomiocytach i mięśniach szkieletowych. Ogranicza toksyczność wolnych rodników tlenowych oraz aldehydów – usuwa toksyczne produkty powstałe w wyniku reakcji wolnorodnikowych. Jako czynnik antyglikacyjny jest ochroną dla białek komórkowych przed reaktywnymi formami tlenu. Działa bakteriostatycznie w stosunku do Helicobacter pylori. Karnozyna uznawana jest za potencjalny czynnik terapeutyczny wielu schorzeń skorelowanych z procesem starzenia. Redukuje poziom prozapalnych cytokin, a także wykazuje potencjalne działanie przeciwnowotworowe. Ponadto przeciwdziała rozwojowi zaćmy. Niniejsza praca stanowi przegląd bioaktywnych właściwości karnozyny oraz przedstawia aktualne przypadki wykorzystania tej substancji do produkcji farmaceutyków, a także uzasadnia celowość suplementacji. Substancja ta jest coraz bardziej popularna jako komponent suplementów diety.

Carnosine (β-alanyl-L-histidine) is a dipeptide that occurs endogenously in the body, the level of which decreases with age. It is a natural neuroprotective substance and its presence in the body prevents the processes of senescence – the aging of cells. In addition, it has antioxidant and chelating properties in relation to heavy metal ions. Carnosine maintains an acidalkaline balance – it buffers excitable tissues and also neutralizes lactic acid produced as a result of anaerobic glycolysis. It supports myocardial contractility by regulating the activity of calcium channels in cardiomyocytes and skeletal muscles. It limits the toxicity of free oxygen radicals and aldehydes – removing toxic products resulting from free radical reactions. As an anti-glycoprotein, it protects the cellular proteins against reactive oxygen species. It is bacteriostatic in relation to Helicobacter pylori. Carnosine is recognized as a potential therapeutic agent for many diseases correlated with the aging process. This substance is a potential therapeutic agent in the case of Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s disease, as well as ischemic stroke. It reduces the level of pro-inflammatory cytokins and also has a potential anti-tumour effect. In addition, it counteracts the development of cataracts. This work is a review of the bioactive properties of carnosine and presents current cases of use of this substance in the manufacture of pharmaceuticals. This substance is becoming more and more popular as a component of dietary supplements.
 
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